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Vertebrate Animal
& Plant Database

Vertebrate animals in this
database include birds, mammals,
turtles, & fish.

Author Abbreviations

Citations

Send questions or comments
to Dr. John Hilty at: john@illinoiswildflowers.info


Return to Illinois Wildflowers

Last Updated: 3-27-17

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Plant Species

Abies spp. (Fir)

Abies balsamea (Balsam Fir)

Abutilon theophrasti (Velvetleaf)

Acalypha spp. (Mercury, Copperleaf)

Acalypha ostryifolia (Hornbeam Mercury)

Acer spp. (Maple)

Acer negundo (Box Elder)

Acer pensylvanicum (Striped Maple)

Acer rubrum (Red Maple)

Acer saccharinum (Silver Maple)

Acer saccharum (Sugar Maple)

Achillea millefolium (Yarrow)

Acorus calamus (Sweet Flag)

Actaea rubra (Red Baneberry)

Adiantum pedatum (Maidenhair Fern)

Aesculus spp. (Buckeye)

Aesculus glabra (Ohio Buckeye)

Agastache foeniculum (Anise Hyssop)

Ageratina altissima (White Snakeroot)

Agrostis spp. (Bentgrass)

Agrostis gigantea (Redtop)

Agrostis stolonifera palustris (Creeping Bentgrass)

Allium spp. (Wild Onion)

Allium stellatum (Cliff Onion)

Allium tricoccum (Wild Leek)

Alnus spp. (Alder)

Alnus serrulata (Brookside Alder)

Alopecurus spp. (Foxtail)

Amaranthus spp. (Pigweed, Amaranth)

Amaranthus blitoides (Prostrate Pigweed)

Amaranthus hybridus (Tall Pigweed)

Amaranthus retroflexus (Rough Pigweed)

Amaranthus rudis (Water Hemp)

Amaranthus tuberculatus (Western Water Hemp)

Ambrosia spp. (Ragweed)

Ambrosia artemisiifolia (Common Ragweed)

Ambrosia bidentata (Lance-leaved Ragweed)

Ambrosia trifida (Giant Ragweed)

Amelanchier spp. (Serviceberry, Juneberry)

Amelanchier arborea (Downy Serviceberry)

Amelanchier canadensis (Canadian Serviceberry)

Amelanchier laevis (Smooth Serviceberry)

Ammannia coccinea (Scarlet Toothcup)

Ammophila breviligulata (Beach Grass)

Amorpha canescens (Leadplant)

Ampelopsis cordata (Raccoon Grape)

Amphicarpaea bracteata (Hog Peanut)

Andropogon spp. (Broomsedge, Bluestem)

Andropogon gerardii (Big Bluestem)

Anemone cylindrica (Candle Anemone)

Anemone quinquefolia (Wood Anemone)

Antennaria spp. (Pussytoes)

Antennaria neglecta (Field Pussytoes)

Aplectrum hyemale (Putty-root Orchid)

Apocynum cannabinum (Spreading Dogbane)

Aralia spp. (Spikenard)

Aralia hispida (Bristly Sarsaparilla)

Aralia nudicaulis (Wild Sarsaparilla)

Aralia spinosa (Devil's Walkingstick)

Arctium spp. (Burdock)

Arctium minus (Common Burdock)

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (Bearberry)

Argemone spp. (Prickly Poppy)

Argemone albiflora (White Prickly Poppy)

Argemone mexicana (Mexican Prickly Poppy)

Arisaema spp. (Jack-in-the-Pulpit, Green Dragon)

Arisaema triphyllum (Jack-in-the-Pulpit)

Aronia spp. (Chokeberry)

Aronia arbutifolia (Red Chokeberry)

Aronia melanocarpa (Black Chokeberry)

Artemisia campestris caudata (Beach Wormwood)

Arundinaria gigantea (Giant Cane)

Asarum canadense (Wild Ginger)

Asclepias spp. (Milkweed)

Asclepias incarnata (Swamp Milkweed)

Asclepias tuberosa (Butterfly Milkweed)

Asclepias verticillata (Whorled Milkweed)

Asimina triloba (Pawpaw)

Asplenium spp. (Spleenwort)

Athyrium filix-femina (Lady Fern)

Avena sativa (Oats)

Azolla spp. (Mosquito Fern)

Bacopa spp. (Water Hyssop)

Barbarea spp. (Winter Cress)

Berberis spp. (Barberry)

Berberis thunbergii (Japanese Barberry)

Berberis vulgaris (Common Barberry)

Berchemia scandens (Rattan Vine)

Betula spp. (Birch)

Betula alleghaniensis (Yellow Birch)

Betula lenta (Sweet Birch)

Betula nigra (River Birch)

Betula papyrifera (Paper Birch)

Betula populifera (Gray Birch)

Bidens spp. (Tickseed Sunflower, Beggar's Ticks)

Bidens coronata (Tall Swamp Marigold)

Bidens frondosa (Common Beggar's Ticks)

Bidens tripartita (Three-lobed Beggar's Ticks)

Boehmeria cylindrica (False Nettle)

Bolboschoenus fluviatilis (River Bulrush)

Bolboschoenus maritimus (Alkali Bulrush)

Botrychium spp. (Grapefern, Moonwort)

Botrychium virginianum (Rattlesnake Fern)

Bouteloua gracilis (Blue Grama)

Brasenia schreberi (Water-shield)

Brassica spp. (Mustard)

Brassica napus (Rape)

Brassica nigra (Black Mustard)

Brickellia eupatorioides (False Boneset)

Bromus spp. (Brome)

Bromus ciliatus (Fringed Brome)

Bromus inermis (Smooth Brome)

Buchloe dactyloides (Buffalo Grass)

Buglossoides arvensis (Field Gromwell)

Bumelia spp. (False Buckthorn)

Cabomba caroliniana (Carolina Fanwort)

Calamagrostis sp. (Bluejoint Grass, Reed Grass)

Calamagrostis canadensis (Bluejoint Grass)

Calla palustris (Wild Calla)

Callicarpa americana (American Beautyberry)

Callitriche spp. (Water Starwort)

Caltha palustris (Marsh Marigold)

Calystegia sepium (Hedge Bindweed)

Campanula rotundifolia (Harebell)

Campsis radicans (Trumpet Creeper)

Cannabis sativa (Hemp)

Capsella bursa-pastoris (Shepherd's Purse)

Caragana arborescens (Siberian Peashrub)

Carex spp. (Sedge)

Carex brachyglossa (Yellow Fox Sedge)

Carex crinita (Fringed Sedge)

Carex flava (Yellow Sedge)

Carex lurida (Sallow Sedge)

Carex rostrata (Beaked Sedge)

Carex stipata (Awl-fruited Sedge)

Carex stricta (Tussock Sedge)

Carex tribuloides (Blunt Broom Sedge)

Carpinus caroliniana (Musclewood)

Carya spp. (Hickory)

Carya cordiformis (Bitternut Hickory)

Carya glabra (Pignut Hickory)

Carya illinoinensis (Pecan)

Carya laciniosa (Kingnut Hickory)

Carya ovata (Shagbark Hickory)

Carya tomentosa (Mockernut Hickory)

Castanea spp. (Chestnut, Chinkapin)

Castanea dentata (American Chestnut)

Castanea pumila (Allegheny Chinquapin)

Caulophyllum thalictroides (Blue Cohosh)

Ceanothus americanus (New Jersey Tea)

Celastrus scandens (American Bittersweet)

Celtis spp. (Hackberry, Sugarberry)

Celtis laevigata (Sugarberry)

Celtis occidentalis (Hackberry)

Cenchrus spp. (Sandbur)

Cephalanthus occidentalis (Buttonbush)

Cerastium spp. (Mouse-eared Chickweed)

Cerastium fontanum (Common Mouse-eared Chickweed)

Ceratophyllum spp. (Coontail)

Ceratophyllum demersum (Common Coontail)

Cercis canadensis (Eastern Redbud)

Chamaecrista fasciculata (Partridge Pea)

Chamaedaphne calyculata (Leatherleaf)

Chamaesyce spp. (Spreading Spurge)

Chamaesyce maculata (Prostrate Spurge)

Chamaesyce nutans (Nodding Spurge)

Chara spp. (Chara)

Chelone glabra (White Turtlehead)

Chenopodium spp. (Goosefoot)

Chenopodium album (Lamb's Quarters)

Chloris verticillata (Tumble Windmill Grass)

Chrysopsis spp. (Golden Aster)

Circaea lutetiana (Enchanter's Nightshade)

Cirsium spp. (Thistle)

Cirsium arvense (Canada Thistle)

Claytonia virginica (Spring Beauty)

Clintonia borealis (Bluebead Lily)

Comptonia peregrina (Sweetfern)

Conopholis americana (Squawroot)

Conyza canadensis (Horseweed)

Coptis trfiolia (Goldthread)

Coreopsis grandiflora (Large-flowered Coreopsis)

Coreopsis palmata (Prairie Coreopsis)

Cornus spp. (Dogwood)

Cornus alternifolia (Alternate-leaved Dogwood)

Cornus amomum (Silky Dogwood)

Cornus canadensis (Bunchberry)

Cornus drummondii (Rough-leaved Dogwood)

Cornus florida (Flowering Dogwood)

Cornus racemosa (Gray Dogwood)

Cornus sericea (Red-Osier Dogwood)

Corylus spp. (Hazelnut)

Corylus americana (American Hazelnut)

Corylus cornuta (Beaked Hazelnut)

Crataegus spp. (Hawthorn)

Crataegus crus-galli (Cockspur Hawthorn)

Crataegus mollis (Downy Hawthorn)

Croton spp. (Goatweed)

Croton capitatus (Hogwort)

Croton glandulosus (Sand Goatweed)

Croton monanthogynus (Prairie Tea)

Croton texensis (Texas Goatweed)

Cryptotaenia canadensis (Honewort)

Cyperus spp. (Flatsedge)

Cyperus erythrorhizos (Redroot Flatsedge)

Cyperus esculentus (Yellow Flatsedge)

Cyperus odoratus (Rusty Flatsedge)

Cyperus strigosus (Straw-colored Flatsedge)

Dactylus glomerata (Orchard Grass)

Dalea purpurea (Purple Prairie Clover)

Danthonia spp. (Oatgrass)

Daucus carota (Wild Carrot)

Decodon verticillatus (Swamp Loosestrife)

Dentaria spp. (Toothwort)

Dentaria laciniata (Cutleaf Toothwort)

Desmodium spp. (Tick Trefoil)

Desmodium canadense (Showy Tick Trefoil)

Dicentra canadensis (Squirrel Corn)

Dicentra cucullaria (Dutchman's Breeches)

Dichanthelium spp. (Panic Grass)

Dichanthelium clandestinum (Deer Tongue Grass)

Diervilla lonicera (Bush Honeysuckle)

Digitaria spp. (Crabgrass)

Digitaria ischaemum (Smooth Crabgrass)

Digitaria sanguinalis (Common Crabgrass)

Diodia teres (Rough Buttonweed)

Diodia virginiana (Virginia Buttonweed)

Diospyros virginiana (American Persimmon)

Distichlis spicata (Salt Grass)

Dulichium arundinaceum (Three-way Sedge)

Dryopteris spp. (Wood Fern)

Echinacea spp. (Coneflower)

Echinacea angustifolia (Black Sampson)

Echinacea pallida (Pale Purple Coneflower)

Echinochloa spp. (Barnyard Grass)

Echinochloa colona (Jungle Rice)

Echinochloa crus-galli (Barnyard Grass)

Echinochloa frumentacea (Billion Dollar Grass)

Echinochloa muricata (Barnyard Grass)

Echinochloa walteri (Coastal Barnyard Grass)

Egeria densa (Brazilian Waterweed)

Eichhornia crassipes (Water Hyacinth)

Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian Olive)

Elaeagnus umbellata (Autumn Olive)

Eleocharis spp. (Spikerush)

Eleocharis acicularis (Needle Spikerush)

Eleocharis obtusa (Blunt Spikerush)

Eleocharis palustris (Common Spikerush)

Eleusine indica (Goosegrass)

Elodea spp. (Waterweed)

Elodea canadensis (Common Waterweed)

Elymus spp. (Wild Rye)

Elymus canadensis (Canada Wild Rye)

Elymus virginicus (Virginia Wild Rye)

Elytrigia spp. (Wheatgrass)

Elytrigia repens (Quackgrass)

Empetrum nigrum (Black Crowberry)

Enemion biternatum (False Rue Anemone)

Epigaea repens (Trailing Arbutus)

Equisetum spp. (Horsetail)

Eragrostis spp. (Lovegrass)

Eragrostis hypnoides (Creeping Lovegrass)

Erigeron spp. (Fleabane)

Eriophorum vaginatum (Tussock Cottongrass)

Erythronium spp. (Trout Lily)

Eschscholtzia californica (California Poppy)

Eupatorium spp. (Boneset)

Eupatorium perfoliatum (Common Boneset)

Euphorbia spp. (Spurge)

Euphorbia corollata (Flowering Spurge)

Euthamia graminifolia (Grass-leaved Goldenrod)

Eutrochium maculatum (Spotted Joe-pye Weed)

Fagopyrum spp. (Buckwheat)

Fagopyrum esculentum (Common Buckwheat)

Fagus grandifolia (American Beech)

Fallopia convolvulus (Black Bindweed)

Fallopia scandens (Climbing Wild Buckwheat)

Festuca spp. (Fescue Grass)

Festuca pratensis (Meadow Fescue)

Forestiera acuminata (Swamp Privet)

Fragaria spp. (Strawberry)

Fragaria vesca (Woodland Strawberry)

Fragaria virginiana (Wild Strawberry)

Fraxinus spp. (Ash)

Fraxinus americana (White Ash)

Fraxinus pennsylvanica (Green Ash)

Galax urceolata (Beetleweed)

Galium spp. (Bedstraw)

Gaultheria hispidula (Creeping Snowberry)

Gaultheria procumbens (Wintergreen)

Gaylussacia spp. (Huckleberry)

Gaylussacia baccata (Black Huckleberry)

Gaylussacia dumosa (Dwarf Huckleberry)

Gaylussacia frondosa (Dangleberry)

Geranium carolinianum (Carolina Geranium)

Geranium maculatum (Wild Geranium)

Geum spp. (Avens)

Geum canadense (White Avens)

Glechoma hederacea (Ground Ivy)

Gleditsia triacanthos (Honey Locust)

Glyceria sp. (Manna Grass)

Glyceria striata (Fowl Manna Grass)

Glycine max (Soybean)

Hackelia virginiana (Stickseed)

Hamamelis virginiana (Witch-Hazel)

Hepatica nobilis acuta (Sharp-lobed Hepatica)

Hepatica nobilis obtusa (Round-lobed Hepatica)

Helenium sp. (Sneezeweed)

Helianthus spp. (Sunflower)

Helianthus annuus (Annual Sunflower)

Helianthus giganteus (Giant Sunflower)

Helianthus pauciflorus (Prairie Sunflower)

Helianthus petiolaris (Plains Sunflower)

Heliopsis helianthoides (False Sunflower)

Heliotropium indicum (Indian Heliotrope)

Heracleum maximum (Cowparsnip)

Hesperis matronalis (Dame's Rocket)

Heteranthera dubia (Water Stargrass)

Heuchera richardsonii (Prairie Alumroot)

Hieracium spp. (Hawkweed)

Holcus lanatus (Velvet Grass)

Hordeum spp. (Barley)

Hordeum vulgare (Barley)

Houstonia spp. (Bluet)

Hydrophyllum virginianum (Virginia Waterleaf)

Hypericum sp. (St. John's Wort)

Hypericum prolificum (Shrubby St. John's Wort)

Ilex spp. (Holly)

Ilex decidua (Possumhaw)

Ilex glabra (Inkberry)

Ilex laevigata (Smooth Winterberry)

Ilex mucronata (Catberry)

Ilex opaca (American Holly)

Ilex verticillata (Common Winterberry)

Impatiens spp. (Jewelweed)

Impatiens pallida (Yellow Jewelweed)

Iris virginica shrevei (Southern Blue Flag)

Juglans spp. (Walnut)

Juglans cinerea (Butternut)

Juglans nigra (Black Walnut)

Juncus spp. (Rush)

Juncus effusus (Soft Rush)

Juniperus communis (Common Juniper)

Juniperus virginiana (Eastern Red Cedar)

Kalmia angustifolia (Sheep Laurel)

Kalmia latifolia (Mountain Laurel)

Krigia caespitosa (Weedy Dwarf Dandelion)

Krigia virginica (Virginia Dwarf Dandelion)

Kummerowia spp. (Oriental Bush Clover)

Kummerowia stipulacea (Korean Bush Clover)

Kummerowia striata (Japanese Bush Clover)

Lactuca spp. (Wild Lettuce)

Lactuca canadensis (Wild Lettuce)

Laportea canadensis (Wood Nettle)

Larix spp. (Larch)

Larix laricina (Tamarack)

Lathyrus spp. (Vetchling)

Ledum groenlandicum (Labrador Tea)

Leersia spp. (Cutgrass, Catchfly Grass)

Leersia lenticularis (Catchfly Grass)

Leersia oryzoides (Rice Cutgrass)

Lemna spp. (Duckweed)

Lemna minor (Common Duckweed)

Lemna trisulca (Star Duckweed)

Lepidium sp. (Peppergrass)

Leptochloa fascicularis (Bearded Sprangletop)

Leptochloa panicoides (Amazon Sprangletop)

Lespedeza spp. (Bush Clover)

Lespedeza cuneata (Chinese Bush Clover)

Leucanthemum vulgare (Ox-eye Daisy)

Leucothoe fontanesiana (Highland Doghobble)

Liatris spp. (Blazingstar)

Ligustrum spp. (Privet)

Limnobium spongia (Sponge Plant)

Lindera benzoin (Spicebush)

Linum usitatissimum (Cultivated Flax)

Liquidambar styraciflua (Sweet Gum)

Liriodendron tulipifera (Tulip Tree)

Lonicera spp. (Honeysuckle)

Lonicera japonica (Japanese Honeysuckle)

Lotus corniculatus (Birdfoot Trefoil)

Ludwigia palustris (Marsh Purslane)

Ludwigia peploides glabrescens (Creeping Water Primrose)

Lycopersicon esculentum (Tomato)

Lycopodium sp. (Clubmoss)

Lycopus uniflorus (Northern Bugleweed)

Lysimachia lanceolata (Lance-leaved Loosestrife)

Maclura pomifera (Osage Orange)

Magnolia spp. (Magnolia)

Magnolia grandiflora (Southern Magnolia)

Magnolia virginiana (Sweetbay Magnolia)

Maianthemum canadense (Canada Mayflower)

Maianthemum trifolium (False Mayflower)

Malus spp. (Apple, Crab Apple)

Malus ioensis (Prairie Crab Apple)

Malus pumila (Apple)

Medeola virginiana (Indian Cucumber Root)

Medicago sativa (Alfalfa)

Melia azedarach (Chinaberry)

Melilotus sp. (Sweet Clover)

Melilotus alba (White Sweet Clover)

Melochia corchorifolia (Chocolate Weed)

Menispermum canadense (Moonseed)

Mentha spp. (Mint)

Menyanthes trifoliata (Buckbean)

Menziesia pilosa (Minniebush)

Mitchella repens (Partridge Berry)

Mitella diphylla (Bishop's Cap)

Morella pensylvanica (Northern Bayberry)

Morus spp. (Mulberry)

Morus rubra (Red Mulberry)

Muhlenbergia spp. (Satin Grass, Muhly)

Muhlenbergia schreberi (Nimblewill)

Myrica spp. (Bayberry)

Myrica cerifera (Wax Myrtle)

Myriophyllum spp. (Water Milfoil)

Najas spp. (Naiad)

Najas flexilis (Nodding Naiad)

Najas guadalupensis (Southern Naiad)

Najas minor (Brittle Naiad)

Nelumbo lutea (American Lotus)

Nitella spp. (Nitella)

Nuphar spp. (Spatterdock, Pond-lily)

Nuphar advena (Spatterdock)

Nuphar variegata (Bullhead Pond-lily)

Nymphaea spp. (Water Lily)

Nymphaea odorata (Fragrant Water Lily)

Nyssa spp. (Tupelo)

Nyssa aquatica (Water Tupelo)

Nyssa sylvatica (Black Gum)

Oenothera spp. (Evening Primrose)

Oenothera laciniata (Cutleaf Evening Primrose)

Oenothera linifolia (Thread-leaved Sundrops)

Oligoneuron rigidum (Stiff Goldenrod)

Opuntia spp. (Prickly Pear)

Oryza sativa (Rice)

Osmorhiza spp. (Sweet Cicely, Aniseroot)

Ostrya virginiana (Ironwood)

Oxalis spp. (Wood Sorrel)

Oxalis montana (Northern Wood Sorrel)

Oxalis stricta (Yellow Wood Sorrel)

Oxycoccos spp. (Cranberry)

Oxycoccos microcarpon (Small Cranberry)

Oxydendrum arboreum (Sourwood)

Panicum spp. (Panic Grass)

Panicum anceps (Beaked Panic Grass)

Panicum capillare (Witchgrass)

Panicum dichotomiflorum (Fall Panic Grass)

Panicum miliaceum (Broomcorn Millet)

Panicum virgatum (Switchgrass)

Parietaria pensylvanica (Pennsylvania Pellitory)

Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia Creeper)

Paspalum spp. (Beadgrass)

Paspalum floridanum (Giant Beadgrass)

Pastinaca sativa (Wild Parsnip)

Peltandra virginica (Arrow Arum)

Penstemon digitalis (Foxglove Penstemon)

Penstemon gracilis (Slender Penstemon)

Penstemon grandiflorus (Large-flowered Penstemon)

Persicaria spp. (Smartweed)

Persicaria coccinea (Marsh Smartweed)

Persicaria hydropiper (Waterpepper)

Persicaria hydropiperoides (Mild Waterpepper)

Persicaria lapathifolia (Pale Smartweed)

Persicaria maculosa (Lady's Thumb)

Persicaria pensylvanica (Pennsylvania Smartweed)

Persicaria punctata (Dotted Smartweed)

Phalaris arundinacea (Reed Canary Grass)

Phalaris canariensis (Canary Grass)

Phleum pratense (Timothy)

Phlox divaricata (Woodland Phlox)

Phoradendron leucarpum (Eastern Mistletoe)

Phragmites australis (Giant Reed)

Phryma leptostachya (Lopseed)

Phyla lanceolata (Fogfruit)

Phyllanthus caroliniensis (Carolina Leaf-flower)

Physalis spp. (Ground Cherry)

Phytolacca americana (Pokeweed)

Picea spp. (Spruce)

Picea glauca (White Spruce)

Picea mariana (Black Spruce)

Picea pungens (Colorado Blue Spruce)

Picea rubens (Red Spruce)

Pinus spp. (Pine)

Pinus banksiana (Jack Pine)

Pinus echinata (Shortleaf Pine)

Pinus rigida (Pitch Pine)

Pinus strobus (White Pine)

Pinus sylvestris (Scots Pine)

Pinus taeda (Loblolly Pine)

Pisum sativum (Garden Pea)

Plantago spp. (Plantain)

Plantago lanceolata (English Plantain)

Platanus occidentalis (American Sycamore)

Poa spp. (Bluegrass)

Poa annua (Annual Bluegrass)

Poa pratensis (Kentucky Bluegrass)

Podophyllum peltatum (Mayapple)

Poinsettia cyathophora (Wild Poinsettia)

Polygala spp. (Milkwort)

Polygonatum spp. (Solomon's Seal)

Polygonatum biflorum (Small Solomon's Seal)

Polygonatum commutatum (Solomon's Seal)

Polygonum spp. (Knotweed)

Polymnia spp. (Leafcup)

Polystichum acrostichoides (Christmas Fern)

Pontederia cordata (Pickerelweed)

Populus spp. (Poplar, Cottonwood, Aspen)

Populus alba (White Poplar)

Populus balsamifera (Balsam Poplar)

Populus deltoides (Eastern Cottonwood)

Populus grandidentata (Bigtooth Aspen)

Populus nigra (Black Poplar)

Populus tremuloides (Quaking Aspen)

Portulaca oleracea (Common Purslane)

Potamogeton spp. (Pondweed)

Potamogeton crispus (Curlyleaf Pondweed)

Potamogeton epihydrus (Ribbon-leaved Pondweed)

Potamogeton foliosus (Leafy Pondweed)

Potamogeton gramineus (Variable-leaved Pondweed)

Potamogeton natans (Floating Pondweed)

Potamogeton nodosus (Long-leaved Pondweed)

Potamogeton praelongus (White-stemmed Pondweed)

Potamogeton pusillus (Slender Pondweed)

Potamogeton richardsonii (Richardson's Pondweed)

Potentilla spp. (Cinquefoil)

Potentilla arguta (Prairie Cinquefoil)

Potentilla canadensis (Dwarf Cinquefoil)

Potentilla norvegica (Rough Cinquefoil)

Proserpinaca sp. (Mermaid Weed)

Prunella vulgaris (Selfheal)

Prunus spp. (Cherry)

Prunus spp. (Plum)

Prunus americana (American Plum)

Prunus pensylvanica (Pin Cherry)

Prunus persica (Peach)

Prunus pumila (Sand Cherry)

Prunus serotina (Wild Black Cherry)

Prunus virginiana (Choke Cherry)

Pycnanthemum virginianum (Common Mountain Mint)

Pyrola spp. (Shinleaf)

Pyrus communis (Pear)

Quercus spp. (Oak)

Quercus alba (White Oak)

Quercus bicolor (Swamp White Oak)

Quercus ellipsoidalis (Hill's Oak)

Quercus falcata (Spanish Oak)

Quercus imbricaria (Shingle Oak)

Quercus lyrata (Overcup Oak)

Quercus macrocarpa (Bur Oak)

Quercus marilandica (Blackjack Oak)

Quercus michauxii (Swamp Chestnut Oak)

Quercus muehlenbergii (Chinquapin Oak)

Quercus nigra (Water Oak)

Quercus pagoda (Cherrybark Oak)

Quercus palustris (Pin Oak)

Quercus phellos (Willow Oak)

Quercus rubra (Northern Red Oak)

Quercus shumardii (Shumard's Oak)

Quercus stellata (Post Oak)

Quercus velutina (Black Oak)

Ranunculus spp. (Buttercup)

Ranunculus aquatilis (White Water Buttercup)

Ranunculus fascicularis (Early Buttercup)

Ratibida columnifera (Mexican Hat)

Ratibida pinnata (Yellow Coneflower)

Rhamnus spp. (Buckthorn)

Rhamnus alnifolia (Alder-leaved Buckthorn)

Rhamnus lanceolata (Lance-leaved Buckthorn)

Rhododendron spp. (Rhododendron, Azalea)

Rhus spp. (Sumac)

Rhus copallina (Winged Sumac)

Rhus glabra (Smooth Sumac)

Rhus hirta (Staghorn Sumac)

Ribes spp. (Gooseberry, Currant)

Ribes americana (Wild Black Currant)

Ribes cynosbati (Prickly Gooseberry)

Ribes glandulosum (Skunk Currant)

Ribes lacustre (Bristly Black Currant)

Robinia pseudoacacia (Black Locust)

Rosa spp. (Wild Rose)

Rosa multiflora (Multiflora Rose)

Rosa setigera (Wild Climbing Rose)

Rubus spp. (Blackberry, Raspberry, Dewberry)

Rubus allegheniensis (Common Blackberry)

Rubus flagellaris (Common Dewberry)

Rubus idaeus strigosus (American Red Raspberry)

Rubus occidentalis (Black Raspberry)

Rudbeckia hirta (Black-eyed Susan)

Ruellia sp. (Wild Petunia)

Rumex spp. (Dock)

Rumex acetosella (Sheep Sorrel)

Rumex crispus (Curly Dock)

Ruppia maritima (Widgeon Grass)

Sagittaria spp. (Arrowhead)

Sagittaria montevidensis calycina (Hooded Arrowhead)

Sagittaria latifolia (Common Arrowhead)

Sagittaria platyphylla (Delta Arrowhead)

Salix spp. (Willow)

Salix babylonica (Weeping Willow)

Salix discolor (Pussy Willow)

Salix nigra (Black Willow)

Salsola kali (Russian Thistle)

Salvia lyrata (Lyre-leaved Sage)

Sambucus spp. (Elderberry)

Sambucus canadensis (Common Elderberry)

Sambucus racemosa (Red-berried Elder)

Sanguinaria canadensis (Bloodroot)

Sanicula spp. (Black Snakeroot)

Sassafras albidum (Sassafras)

Schizachyrium scoparium (Little Bluestem)

Schoenoplectus acutus (Hardstem Bulrush)

Schoenoplectus heterochaetus (Slender Bulrush)

Schoenoplectus pungens (Common Three-square)

Schoenoplectus subterminalis (Water Bulrush)

Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani (Great Bulrush)

Scirpus spp. (Bulrush)

Scleria spp. (Nutrush)

Scutellaria parvula (Small Skullcap)

Secale cereale (Rye)

Sedum ternatum (Wild Stonecrop)

Setaria spp. (Bristlegrass)

Setaria faberi (Giant Bristlegrass)

Setaria italica (Italian Millet)

Setaria pumila (Yellow Bristlegrass)

Shepherdia argentea (Silver Buffaloberry)

Sida spinosa (Prickly Sida)

Silene spp. (Catchfly, Campion)

Silene antirrhena (Sleepy Catchfly)

Silphium spp. (Rosinweed)

Silphium integrifolium (Rosinweed)

Silphium perfoliatum (Cup Plant)

Sisyrinchium sp. (Blue-eyed Grass)

Smilacina racemosa (False Solomon's Seal)

Smilax spp. (Greenbrier)

Smilax ecirrhata (Upright Carrion Flower)

Smilax glauca (Glaucous-leaved Greenbrier)

Smilax hispida (Bristly Greenbrier)

Smilax rotundifolia (Round-leaved Greenbrier)

Solanum spp. (Nightshade)

Solanum carolinense (Horsenettle)

Solanum dulcamara (Bittersweet Nightshade)

Solanum ptycanthum (Black Nightshade)

Solanum tuberosum (Potato)

Solidago spp. (Goldenrod)

Solidago canadensis (Canada Goldenrod)

Solidago flexicaulis (Zigzag Goldenrod)

Solidago nemoralis (Field Goldenrod)

Solidago speciosa (Showy Goldenrod)

Sonchus spp. (Sowthistle)

Sonchus oleraceus (Common Sowthistle)

Sorbus spp. (Mountain Ash)

Sorbus americana (American Mountain Ash)

Sorghastrum nutans (Indian Grass)

Sorghum spp. (Sorghum)

Sorghum almum (Argentine Sorghum)

Sorghum bicolor (Cultivated Sorghum)

Sorghum halepense (Johnson Grass)

Sorghum sudanense (Sudan Grass)

Sparganium spp. (Bur-reed)

Sparganium americanum (American Bur-reed)

Sparganium androcladum (Branching Bur-reed)

Sparganium emersum (Green-fruited Bur-reed)

Sparganium eurycarpum (Giant Bur-reed)

Spartina spp. (Cordgrass)

Spiraea spp. (Spiraea)

Spirodela spp. (Duckmeat)

Spirodela polyrhiza (Greater Duckweed)

Sporobolus spp. (Dropseed)

Sporobolus cryptandrus (Sand Dropseed)

Stellaria spp. (Chickweed)

Stellaria media (Common Chickweed)

Stipa spp. (Needlegrass)

Strophostyles leiosperma (Small Fuzzy Bean)

Stuckenia pectinata (Sago Pondweed)

Styrax americanus (American Snowbell)

Symphoricarpos albus (Snowberry)

Symphoricarpos orbiculatus (Coralberry)

Symphyotrichum spp. (Aster)

Symphyotrichum laeve (Smooth Blue Aster)

Symphyotrichum oolentangiense (Sky Blue Aster)

Symphyotrichum sericeum (Silky Aster)

Symplocarpus foetidus (Skunk Cabbage)

Synapis arvensis (Charlock)

Syringa vulgaris (Common Lilac)

Taraxacum officinale (Dandelion)

Taxodium distichum (Bald Cypress)

Taxus canadensis (Canada Yew)

Thalictrum dioicum (Early Meadow Rue)

Thuja occidentalis (Eastern White Cedar)

Tiarella cordifolia (Foamflower)

Tilia spp. (Basswood, Linden)

Tilia americana (American Basswood)

Toxicodendron spp. (Poison Ivy, Poison Oak)

Toxicodendron radicans (Poison Ivy)

Toxicodendron vernix (Poison Sumac)

Tragopogon dubius (Sand Goat's Beard)

Trichostema spp. (Bluecurls)

Tridens flavus (Purpletop)

Trifolium spp. (Clover)

Trifolium hybridum (Alsike Clover)

Trifolium pratense (Red Clover)

Trifolium repens (White Clover)

Trillium spp. (Trillium)

Triodia flava (Purpletop)

Triplasis purpurea (Sand Grass)

Triticum aestivum (Wheat)

Trollius laxus (American Globeflower)

Tsuga spp. (Hemlock)

Tsuga canadensis (Eastern Hemlock)

Tussilago farfara (Coltsfoot)

Typha spp. (Cattail)

Typha latifolia (Broad-leaved Cattail)

Ulmus spp. (Elm)

Ulmus alata (Winged Elm)

Ulmus americana (American Elm)

Ulmus pumila (Siberian Elm)

Ulmus rubra (Slippery Elm)

Ulmus thomasii (Rock Elm)

Utricularia spp. (Bladderwort)

Uvularia grandiflora (Large-flowered Bellwort)

Vaccinium spp. (Blueberry)

Vaccinium angustifolium (Lowbush Blueberry)

Vaccinium corymbosum (Highbush Blueberry)

Vaccinium myrtilloides (Canadian Blueberry)

Vaccinium stamineum (Deerberry)

Vaccinium uliginosum (Bog Bilberry)

Vallisneria americana (Water Celery)

Verbascum thapsus (Great Mullein)

Verbena spp. (Vervain)

Verbena officinalis (European Vervain)

Verbena stricta (Hoary Vervain)

Vernonia sp. (Ironweed)

Veronica peregrina (Purslane Speedwell)

Viburnum spp. (Viburnum, Arrow-wood)

Viburnum acerifolium (Maple-leaved Viburnum)

Viburnum dentatum (Southern Arrow-wood)

Viburnum edule (Squashberry)

Viburnum lantanoides (Hobblebush)

Viburnum lentago (Nannyberry)

Viburnum nudum (Wild Raisin)

Viburnum prunifolium (Blackhaw Viburnum)

Viburnum recognitum (Smooth Arrow-wood)

Viburnum trilobum (American Cranberry Bush)

Vicia spp. (Vetch)

Vicia cracca (Cow Vetch)

Vigna unguiculata (Cowpea)

Vinca minor (Lesser Periwinkle)

Viola spp. (Violet)

Viola cucullata (Marsh Violet)

Viola pubescens (Common Yellow Violet)

Viola sororia (Common Blue Violet)

Vitis spp. (Grape)

Vitis aestivalis (Summer Grape)

Vitis vulpina (Frost Grape)

Wolffia spp. (Watermeal)

Xanthium spp. (Cocklebur)

Zannichellia palustris (Horned Pondweed)

Zea mays (Corn)

Zizania aquatica (Annual Wild Rice)