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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Morus spp.
(Mulberry) [Moraceae]
(observations are from Martin et al., Ernst et al., Bellrose, DeGraaf, DeVore et al., and Beal)

Birds

Anatidae: Aix sponsa (Wood Duck) [feeds on fruits] Blr1942; Bombycillidae: Bombycilla cedrorum (Cedar Waxwing) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during spring & summer, the fruits are a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Cardinalidae: Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during the spring & summer, the fruits are preferred as a source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Passerina cyanea (Indigo Bunting) [the fruits are preferred as a source of food] DGr2002, Pheucticus ludovicianus (Rose-breasted Grosbeak) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA & Northern Prairies, the fruits are preferred as a source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Piranga olivacea (Scarlet Tanager) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, the fruits are preferred as a source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Piranga rubra (Summer Tanager) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in SE USA, the fruits are preferred as a source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Corvidae: Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow) [the fruits comprise 0.5-5% of the diet in eastern USA & the Prairie region during summer, the fruits are a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Corvus ossifragus (Fish Crow) [the fruits are a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in eastern USA, the fruits are a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Cuculidae: Coccyzus americanus (Yellow-billed Cuckoo) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002, Coccyzus erythropthalmus (Black-billed Cuckoo) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002; Emberizidae: Melospiza melodia (Song Sparrow) [the fruits are preferred as a source of food] DGr2002, Pipilo erythrophthalmus (Eastern Towhee) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002, Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002; Fringillidae: Haemorhous purpureus (Purple Finch) [the fruits are preferred as a source of food] DGr2002, Spinus tristis (American Goldfinch) [the fruits are a preferred source of plant food] DGr2002; Icteridae: Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) [the fruits are a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Icterus galbula (Baltimore Oriole) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during summer, the fruits are preferred as a source of food, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002 Dv2004, Icterus spurius (Orchard Oriole) [fruits comprise 2-10% of the diet in NE USA & Eastern Prairies during summer, the fruits are preferred as a source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Mimidae: Dumetella carolinensis (Gray Catbird) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, the fruits are a preferred source of food, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002 Dv2004, Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird) [the fruits are a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Toxostoma rufum (Brown Thrasher) [fruits comprise 0.5-5% of the diet in NE USA & Eastern Prairies during the summer, the fruits are a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Odontophoridae: Colinus virginianus (Bobwhite Quail) [the fruits are a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Paridae: Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Parulidae: Icteria virens (Yellow-breasted Chat) [feeds on the fruits] Dv2004, Setophaga petechia (Yellow Warbler) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002; Passeridae: Passer domesticus (House Sparrow) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in eastern USA, feeds on fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Phasianidae: Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey) [the fruits are a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Picidae: Colaptes auratus (Northern Flicker) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002 Dv2004, Melanerpes carolinus (Red-bellied Woodpecker) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in the East during spring & summer, feeds on fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Red-headed Woodpecker) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in the East during spring & summer, the fruits are a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002, Picoides villosus (Hairy Woodpecker) [the fruits are a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Sturnidae: Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during summer, the fruits are a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Turdidae: Catharus fuscescens (Veery) [the fruits are a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Catharus ustulatus (Swainson's Thrush) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Hylocichla mustelina (Wood Thrush) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during summer, the fruits are a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird) [the fruits are a preferred source of food, the fruits are eaten rarely] DGr2002 Be1915, Turdus migratorius (American Robin) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA & Eastern Prairies, the fruits are a preferred source of food, the fruits are eaten frequently] MZN1951 DGr2002 Be1915; Tyrannidae: Myiarchus crinitus (Great Crested Flycatcher) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Eastern USA, the fruits are a preferred source of vegetative food] MZN1951, Tyrannus tyrannus (Eastern Kingbird) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in eastern USA, the fruits are a preferred source of vegetative food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Vireonidae: Vireo griseus (White-eyed Vireo) [the fruits are a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Vireo olivaceus (Red-eyed Vireo) [the fruits are a preferred source of food] DGr2002

Mammals
Didelphidae: Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in Missouri during spring] MZN1951; Mephitidae: Spilogale putorius interrupta (Prairie Spotted Skunk) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in Iowa during summer] MZN1951; Sciuridae: Sciurus carolinensis (Eastern Gray Squirrel) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in E USA during summer] MZN1951, Sciurus niger (Fox Squirrel) [fruits comprise 0.5-5% of the diet in NE USA & Ohio during summer] MZN1951

Turtles
Emydidae: Terrapene carolina (Eastern Box Turtle) [feeds on the fruits] EBL1994, Terrapene ornata (Ornate Box Turtle) [feeds on the fruits] EBL1994; Trionychidae: Apalone mutica (Smooth Softshell) [feeds on the fruits] EBL1994
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