____________


Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

____________


Morus spp.
(Mulberry) [Moraceae]
(observations are from Martin et al., Ernst et al., and Bellrose)

Birds

Anatidae: Aix sponsa (Wood Duck) [feeds on fruits] Blr1942; Bombycillidae: Bombycilla cedrorum (Cedar Waxwing) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during spring & summer] MZN1951; Cardinalidae: Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during the spring & summer] MZN1951, Pheucticus ludovicianus (Rose-breasted Grosbeak) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA & Northern Prairies] MZN1951, Piranga olivacea (Scarlet Tanager) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951, Piranga rubra (Summer Tanager) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in SE USA] MZN1951; Corvidae: Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in eastern USA during summer, fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Prairie region] MZN1951, Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in eastern USA] MZN1951; Icteridae: Icterus galbula (Baltimore Oriole) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during summer] MZN1951, Icterus spurius (Orchard Oriole) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during spring & summer, fruits comprise 5-10% of the diet in the Eastern Prairies during summer] MZN1951, Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Mimidae: Dumetella carolinensis (Catbird) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951, Toxostoma rufum (Brown Thrasher) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in Eastern Prairies during summer] MZN1951; Paridae: Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Passeridae: Passer domesticus (House Sparrow) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in eastern USA] MZN1951; Picidae: Melanerpes carolinus (Red-bellied Woodpecker) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in the East during spring & summer] MZN1951, Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Red-headed Woodpecker) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in the East during spring & summer] MZN1951; Sturnidae: Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during summer] MZN1951; Turdidae: Hylocichla mustelina (Wood Thrush) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during summer] MZN1951, Turdus migratorius (American Robin) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA & Eastern Prairies] MZN1951; Tyrannidae: Myiarchus crinitus (Great Crested Flycatcher) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Eastern USA] MZN1951, Tyrannus tyrannus (Eastern Kingbird) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in eastern USA] MZN1951

Mammals
Didelphidae: Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in Missouri during spring] MZN1951; Mephitidae: Spilogale putorius interrupta (Prairie Spotted Skunk) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in Iowa during summer] MZN1951; Sciuridae: Sciurus carolinensis (Eastern Gray Squirrel) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in E USA during summer] MZN1951, Sciurus niger (Fox Squirrel) [fruits comprise 0.5-5% of the diet in NE USA & Ohio during summer] MZN1951

Turtles
Emydidae: Terrapene carolina (Eastern Box Turtle) [feeds on the fruits] EBL1994, Terrapene ornata (Ornate Box Turtle) [feeds on the fruits] EBL1994; Trionychidae: Apalone mutica (Smooth Softshell) [feeds on the fruits] EBL1994
________________________________________________________________________