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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Ulmus americana
(American Elm) [Ulmaceae]
(observations are from Schwartz, Schorger, Ernst et al., DeGraaf, Veilleux et al., Mu╠nzer, Homan et al., Belthoff & Ritchison, Jackson, and Gabbe et al.; because of Dutch Elm disease, the importance of this tree to wildlife has declined)

Birds

Anatidae: Aix sponsa (Wood Duck) [feeds on the seeds] DGr2002; Cardinalidae: Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal) [feeds on the seeds] DGr2002, Pheucticus ludovicianus (Rose-breasted Grosbeak) [feeds on the seeds & buds] DGr2002, Piranga olivacea (Scarlet Tanager) [
this bird has a below-average preference for foraging for insects on this tree in southern Illinois] GRB2002, Piranga rubra (Summer Tanager) [this bird has an average preference for foraging for insects on this tree in southern Illinois] GRB2002; Columbidae: Ectopistes migratorius (Passenger Pigeon) [seeds of this & other elms were often used as a source of food] Sch1955; Cuculidae: Coccyzus americanus (Yellow-billed Cuckoo) [this bird has a below-average preference for foraging for insects on this tree in southern Illinois] GRB2002; Fringillidae: Acanthis flammea (Common Redpoll) [feeds on the seeds] DGr2002, Coccothraustes vespertinus (Evening Grosbeak) [feeds on the seeds & buds as preferred sources of food] DGr2002, Haemorhous purpureus (Purple Finch) [feeds on the seeds & buds as preferred sources of food] DGr2002, Spinus pinus (Pine Siskin) [feeds on the seeds] DGr2002, Spinus tristis (American Goldfinch) [feeds on the seeds & buds as preferred sources of food] DGr2002; Icteridae: Icterus galbula (Baltimore Oriole) [feeds on the seeds & uses this tree for protective cover & nest sites] DGr2002, Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle) [this tree was used 0.8% of the time as a nest site in North Dakota and it had below-average preference for this purpose] Hmn1996; Odontophoridae: Colinus virginianus (Bobwhite Quail) [feeds on the seeds] DGr2002; Paridae: Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse) [this bird has an above-average preference for foraging for insects on this tree in southern Illinois] GRB2002, Poecile atricapillus (Black-capped Chickadee) [feeds on the seeds & uses this tree for protective cover & nest sites in cavities] DGr2002, Poecile carolinensis (Carolina Chickadee) [feeds on the seeds & uses this tree for protective cover & nest sites in cavities, this bird has an average preference for foraging for insects on this tree in southern Illinois] DGr2002 GRB2002; Parulidae: Protonotaria citrea (Prothonotary Warbler) [this bird has an average preference for foraging for insects on this tree in southern Illinois] GRB2002, Setophaga americana (Northern Parula) [this bird has a below-average preference for foraging for insects on this tree in southern Illinois] GRB2002, Setophaga cerulea (Cerulean Warbler) [this bird has an average preference for foraging for insects on this tree in southern Illinois] GRB2002, Setophaga coronata (Yellow-rumped Warbler) [feeds on the seeds] DGr2002, Setophaga dominica (Yellow-throated Warbler) [this bird has a below-average preference for foraging for insects on this tree in southern Illinois] GRB2002, Setophaga petechia (Yellow Warbler) [uses this tree for protective cover & uses small trees of this species for nest sites] DGr2002, Setophaga ruticilla (American Redstart) [uses this tree for protective cover] DGr2002; Passeridae: Passer domesticus (House Sparrow) [feeds on the seeds] DGr2002; Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [feeds on the seed as a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey) [feeds on the seeds as a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Phasianus colchicus (Ring-necked Pheasant) [feeds on the seeds] DGr2002, Tympanuchus cupido (Greater Prairie Chicken) [seeds are eaten during spring & fall for 3 months of the year] Swz1945; Picidae: Colaptes auratus (Northern Flicker) [uses this tree for protective cover & nest sites in cavities] DGr2002, Melanerpes carolinus (Red-bellied Woodpecker) [uses this tree for protective cover & nest sites in cavities, this tree was selected 46.3% of the time for nest sites in cavities in Kansas] DGr2002 Jck1976, Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Red-headed Woodpecker) [this tree was selected 46.7% of the time for nest sites in cavities in Kansas] Jck1976, Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker) [uses this tree for protective cover & nest sites in cavities] DGr2002,  Picoides villosus (Hairy Woodpecker) [uses this tree for protective cover & nest sites in cavities] DGr2002, Sphyrapicus varius (Yellow-bellied Sapsucker) [feeds on the tree sap] DGr2002; Polioptilidae: Polioptila caerulea (Blue-gray Gnatcatcher) [this bird has an average preference for foraging for insects on this tree in southern Illinois] GRB2002; Sittidae: Sitta carolinensis  (White-breasted Nuthatch) [uses this tree for protective cover & nest sites in cavities] DGr2002; Strigidae: Megascops asio (Eastern Screech Owl) [this tree provided 3.9% of the roost sites for young owls in Kentucky & it had below-average preference for this purpose] BR1990; Turdidae: Turdus migratorius (American Robin) [uses this tree for nest sites] DGr2002; Tyrannidae: Empidonax virescens (Acadian Flycatcher) [this bird has an above-average preference for foraging for insects on this tree in southern Illinois] GRB2002; Vireonidae: Vireo flavifrons (Yellow-throated Vireo) [this bird has an average preference for foraging for insects on this tree in southern Illinois] GRB2002, Vireo olivacea (Red-eyed Vireo) [uses this tree for protective cover & uses small trees of this species for nest sites, this bird has an average preference for foraging for insects on this tree in southern Illinois] DGr2002 GRB2002

Mammals
Vespertilionidae: Nycticeius humeralis (Evening Bat) [cavities and/or exfoliating bark of this tree provided 6% of the roost sites in Michigan] Mnz2008,
Perimyotis subflavus (Tricolored Bat) [dead or live foliage of this tree was selected 2.7% of the time as a summer roost site by maternal colonies in Indiana & this tree has below-average preference for this purpose] VWV2003

Turtles
Emydidae: Graptemys ouachitensis (Ouachita Map Turtle) [probably feeds on fallen leaves or fallen seeds] EBL1994
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