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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Triticum aestivum
(Wheat) [Poaceae]
(observations are from Snyder, Lewis, Schwartz, Martin et al., Schorger, Houtcooper, Whitaker, Korschgen, Bellrose, and Havera)

Birds

Alaudidae: Eremophila alpestris (Horned Lark) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in eastern USA during winter, spring, & summer] MZN1951; Anatidae: Aix sponsa  (Wood Duck) [feeds on waste grains] Blr1942, Anas acuta (Northern Pintail) [feeds on waste grains] Blr1942, Anas crecca carolinensis (Green-winged Teal) [feeds on waste grains] Blr1942, Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard) [feeds on waste grains in Illinois & elsewhere] Blr1942 Hv1999, Aythya affinis (Lesser Scaup) [feeds on waste grains in Illinois] Hv1999, Branta canadensis (Canada Goose) [feeds on foliage of winter wheat & waste grains] Blr1942 Hv1999; Calcaridae: Calcarius lapponicus (Lapland Longspur) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in NE USA & Northern Prairies during winter & spring] MZN1951, Calcarius pictus (Smith's Longspur) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in Illinois during spring] MZN1951, Plectrophenax nivalis (Snow Bunting) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during winter] MZN1951; Cardinalidae: Passerina caerulea (Blue Grosbeak) [seeds comprise 25-50% of the diet in E USA during summer] MZN1951, Passerina cyanea (Indigo Bunting) [eats seeds] MZN1951, Pheucticus ludovicianus (Rose-breasted Grosbeak) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA & Northern Prairies during spring & summer] MZN1951, Spiza americana (Dickcissel) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Prairie region] MZN1951; Columbidae: Ectopistes migratorius (Passenger Pigeon) [seeds were an important source of food] Sch1955, Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove) [seeds of major importance as a food source, seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in the Northeast throughout the year, seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in Prairies during summer] Lws1993 MZN1951; Corvidae: Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in eastern USA throughout the year, seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in the Prairie region throughout the year] MZN1951, Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in eastern USA] MZN1951; Emberizidae: Chondestes grammacus (Lark Sparrow) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Prairie region during winter] MZN1951, Juncus hyemalis (Dark-eyed Junco) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Prairie region during winter & spring] MZN1951, Passerculus sandwichensis (Savannah Sparrow) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA & Southern Prairies] MZN1951, Spizella pusilla (Field Sparrow) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Prairie region] MZN1951, Zonotrichia leucophrys (White-crowned Sparrow) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Eastern Prairies] MZN1951, Zonotrichia querula (Harris Sparrow) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Eastern Prairies] MZN1951; Gruidae: Grus canadensis (Sandhill Crane) [seeds & young shoots comprise 10-50% of the diet in western United States during fall, winter, & spring] MZN1951; Icteridae: Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA & the Prairie region throughout the year] MZN1951, Dolichonyx oryzivorus (Bobolink) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951, Euphagus carolinus  (Rusty Blackbird) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA & Canada during fall & winter] MZN1951, Molothrus ater (Brown-headed Cowbird) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during spring & summer & fall, seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in SE USA during summer & fall & winter] MZN1951, Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Prairie region] MZN1951, Sturnella magna (Eastern Meadowlark) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA & Eastern Prairie region during winter & spring] MZN1951, Sturnella neglecta (Western Meadowlark) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in central & western USA] MZN1951; Laridae: Leucophaeus pipixcan (Franklin's Gull) [this plant comprises 2-5% of the diet in the United States during the spring] MZN1951; Passeridae: Passer domesticus (House Sparrow) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in eastern USA & Prairie region throughout the year] MZN1951; Phasianidae: Colinus virginianus (Bobwhite Quail) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in the Northeast during summer & fall & winter, seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE Prairies during fall & winter] MZN1951, Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in Pennsylvania & Allegheny Mountains during fall & winter] MZN1951, Perdix perdix (Hungarian Partridge) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in the Northeast throughout the year, seeds comprise 25-50% of the diet in the Northern Plains during fall & winter] MZN1951, Phasianus colchicus (Ring-necked Pheasant) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Northeast during summer & fall & winter, seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in New York during summer & winter] MZN1951, Tympanuchus cupido (Greater Prairie Chicken) [seeds are eaten during fall & winter & spring for 4 months, seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in the Northern Plains throughout the year, seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in SE Illinois during summer, this plant has above average importance as a source of food in Missouri] Swz1945 MZN1951 Krs1962; Psittacidae: Conuropsis carolinensis (Carolina Parakeet) [seeds of moderate importance as a source of food] Snd2004; Rallidae: Rallus elegans (King Rail) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northeast] MZN1951; Sittidae: Sitta canadensis (Red-breasted Nuthatch) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA] MZN1951, Sitta carolinensis (White-breasted Nuthatch) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA and eastern Prairies] MZN1951

Mammals
Cricetidae: Microtus ochrogaster (Prairie Vole) [feeds on this plant] MZN1951, Microtus pennsylvanicus (Meadow Vole) [feeds on this plant] MZN1951, Peromyscus leucopus (White-footed Mouse) [seeds comprise 1.4% of the diet by volume] Wh1966, Peromyscus maniculatus (Deer Mouse) [moderate amounts of seeds are consumed, seeds comprise 11.8% of the diet by volume] Ht1978 Wh1966; Geomyidae: Geomys bursarius (Plains Pocket Gopher) [feeds on the seeds & other parts of this plant] MZN1951; Leporidae: Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail) [foliage & seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in Ohio throughout the year] MZN1951; Mephitidae: Spilogale putorius interrupta (Prairie Spotted Skunk) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Iowa] MZN1951; Muridae: Mus musculus (House Mouse) [small amounts of seeds are eaten, seeds comprise 7.4% of the diet by volume] Ht1978 Wh1966; Sciuridae: Ictidomys tridecemlineatus (Thirteen-lined Ground Squirrel) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Prairie region during spring & summer] MZN1951, Sciurus niger (Fox Squirrel) [seeds comprise 0.5-10% of the diet in NE USA & Ohio & Michigan throughout the year] MZN1951, Tamias striatus (Eastern Chipmunk) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during summer & fall] MZN1951
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