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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Celtis occidentalis
(Hackberry) [Ulmaceae]
(observations are from Schorger, Havera, DeGraaf, Veilleux et al., Mu╠nzer, Belthoff & Ritchison, DeVore et al., and Beal)

Birds

Anatidae: Aix sponsa (Wood Duck) [feeds on fruits in Illinois] Hv1999, Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard) [feeds on fruits in Illinois] Hv1999; Bombycillidae: Bombycilla cedrorum (Cedar Waxwing) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Cardinalidae: Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Columbidae: Columba livia (Rock Pigeon) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Ectopistes migratorius (Passenger Pigeon) [fruits occasionally used as food] Sch1955; Corvidae: Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Corvus ossifragus (Fish Crow) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Emberizidae: Passerella iliaca (Fox Sparrow) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Pipilo erythrophthalmus (Eastern Towhee) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Fringillidae: Coccothraustes vespertinus (Evening Grosbeak) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Icteridae: Euphagus carolinus (Rusty Blackbird) [feeds on the fruits] Dv2004, Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Mimidae: Dumetella carolinensis (Gray Catbird) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Toxostoma rufum (Brown Thrasher) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Odontophoridae: Colinus virginianus (Bobwhite Quail) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Paridae: Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Phasianidae: Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Phasianus colchicus (Ring-necked Pheasant) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Picidae: Colaptes auratus (Northern Flicker) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food, feeds on the fruits] DGr2002 Dv2004, Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002 Dv2004, Sphyrapicus varius (Yellow-bellied Sapsucker) [feeds on the tree sap as a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Strigidae: Megascops asio (Eastern Screech Owl) [this tree provided 2.3% of the roost sites for young owls in Kentucky & it had average preference for this purpose] BR1990; Sturnidae: Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Turdidae: Catharus fuscescens (Veery) [0.6% of bird stomachs contained fruits from this tree] Be1915b, Catharus guttatus (Hermit Thrush) [feeds on the fruits, 0.9% of bird stomachs contained fruits from this tree] DGr2002 Be1915b, Catharus ustulatus (Swainson's Thrush) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food, 0.75% of bird stomachs contained fruits from this tree] DGr2002 Be1915b, Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food, fruits are eaten occasionally] DGr2002 Be1915, Turdus migratorius (American Robin) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food, feeds on the fruits, fruits are eaten frequently] DGr2002 Dv2004 Be1915; Tyrannidae: Sayornis phoebe (Eastern Phoebe) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002

Mammals
Vespertilionidae:
Nycticeius humeralis (Evening Bat) [cavities and/or exfoliating bark of this tree provided 9% of the roost sites in Michigan] Mnz2008, Perimyotis subflavus (Tricolored Bat) [dead or live foliage of this tree was selected 5.4% of the time as a summer roost site by maternal colonies in Indiana & this tree has average preference for this purpose] VWV2003
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