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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Quercus alba
(White Oak) [Fagaceae]
(observations are from Schorger, Haugen, Bennetts, Veilleux et al., C. Martin et al., Clement, Perry et al., Perry & Thill, and Zimmerman)

Birds

Columbidae: Ectopistes migratorius (Passenger Pigeon) [acorns of this & other oak species were an important source of food] Sch1955; Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [feeds on acorns in Wisconsin & Ontario during fall & winter] Bnn1900

Mammals
Leporidae:
Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail) [the bark & twigs & buds of saplings are often used as a source of food in Michigan during winter] Hgn1942; Vespertilionidae: Corynorhinus rafinesquii (Rafinesque's Big-eared Bat) [cavities of this tree are used for roosting sites in Mississippi, cavities of this tree were used for roost sites 0.6% of the time in Georgia] Mrt2011 Clm2011, Lasionycteris noctivagans (Silver-haired Bat) [cavities in this tree while living were selected as winter roost sites about 10% of the time in Arkansas] PSC2010, Myotis septentrionalis (Northern Long-eared Bat) [cavities and/or exfoliating bark of this tree are used as roost sites 52.6% of the time in Missouri] Zm2015, Nycticeius humeralis (Evening Bat) [cavities or loose bark of this tree provided 9% of diurnal roost sites for male bats in Arkansas & this tree had below-average preference for this purpose] PT2008, Perimyotis subflavus (Tricolored Bat) [dead or live foliage of this tree was selected 5.4% of the time as a summer roost site by maternal colonies in Indiana & this tree is highly preferred for this purpose] VWV2003
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