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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Quercus alba
(White Oak) [Fagaceae]
(observations are from Schorger, Haugen, Bennetts, Veilleux et al., C. Martin et al., Clement, Perry et al., Perry & Thill, Zimmerman, Belthoff & Ritchison, Newell & Rodewald, Dijak et al., and Bielefeldt & Rosenfeld)

Birds

Accipitridae: Buteo lineatus (Red-shouldered Hawk) [5.9% of the time large specimens of this tree were selected for nest sites in Missouri] DTP1990; Cardinalidae: Piranga olivacea (Scarlet Tanager) [about 40% of nest sites were located on this tree in Ohio & this tree was preferred for this purpose] NR2011; Columbidae: Ectopistes migratorius (Passenger Pigeon) [acorns of this & other oak species were an important source of food] Sch1955; Parulidae: Setophaga cerulea (Cerulean Warbler) [about 54% of nest sites were located on this tree in Ohio & this tree was preferred for this purpose] NR2011, Setophaga citrina (Hooded Warbler) [saplings of this tree were used to support 3.8% of all nests in Wisconsin] BfRf2001; Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [feeds on acorns in Wisconsin & Ontario during fall & winter] Bnn1900; Polioptilidae: Polioptila caerulea (Blue-gray Gnatcatcher) [about 56% of nest sites were located on this tree in Ohio & this tree was preferred for this purpose] NR2011; Strigidae: Megascops asio (Eastern Screech Owl) [this tree provided 1.1% of the roost sites for young owls in Kentucky & it had average preference for this purpose] BR1990; Tyrannidae: Contopus virens (Eastern Wood-pewee) [about 47% of nest sites were located on this tree in Ohio & this tree was preferred for this purpose] NR2011; Vireonidae: Vireo flavifrons (Yellow-throated Vireo) [about 23% of nest sites were located on this tree in Ohio] NR2011

Mammals
Leporidae:
Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail) [the bark & twigs & buds of saplings are often used as a source of food in Michigan during winter] Hgn1942; Vespertilionidae: Corynorhinus rafinesquii (Rafinesque's Big-eared Bat) [cavities of this tree are used for roosting sites in Mississippi, cavities of this tree were used for roost sites 0.6% of the time in Georgia] Mrt2011 Clm2011, Lasionycteris noctivagans (Silver-haired Bat) [cavities in this tree while living were selected as winter roost sites about 10% of the time in Arkansas] PSC2010, Myotis septentrionalis (Northern Long-eared Bat) [cavities and/or exfoliating bark of this tree are used as roost sites 52.6% of the time in Missouri] Zm2015, Nycticeius humeralis (Evening Bat) [cavities or loose bark of this tree provided 9% of diurnal roost sites for male bats in Arkansas & this tree had below-average preference for this purpose] PT2008, Perimyotis subflavus (Tricolored Bat) [dead or live foliage of this tree was selected 5.4% of the time as a summer roost site by maternal colonies in Indiana & this tree is highly preferred for this purpose] VWV2003
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