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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Malus spp.
(Apple, Crab Apple) [Rosaceae]
(observations are from Beeman & Pelton, Sotala & Kirkpatrick, Martin et al., Whitaker, Bennetts, and DeGraaf)

Birds
Bombycillidae: Bombycilla cedrorum (Cedar Waxwing) [feeds on the flowers & fruits as preferred sources of food] DGr2002; Cardinalidae: Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Corvidae: Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002, Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay) [feeds on the fruits & seeds & uses these trees for protective cover & nesting habitat] DGr2002; Emberizidae: Pipilo erythrophthalmus (Eastern Towhee) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits & seeds] MZN1951 DGr2002; Fringillidae: Coccothraustes vespertinus (Evening Grosbeak) [feeds on the buds & fruits as preferred sources of food] DGr2002, Haemorhous purpureus (Purple Finch) [buds comprise 5-10% of the diet in E USA during spring, feeds on the flowers & fruits & seeds as preferred sources of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Loxia curvirostra (Red Crossbill) [feeds on the seeds] DGr2002, Pinicola enucleator (Pine Grosbeak) [feeds on fruits & buds & seeds] DGr2002; Icteridae: Icterus galbula (Baltimore Oriole) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits & seeds of these trees & uses larger trees for protective cover & nesting sites] MZN1951 DGr2002, Icterus spurius (Orchard Oriole) [feeds on the fruits of these trees & uses larger trees for protective cover & nesting sites] DGr2002, Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Mimidae: Dumetella carolinensis (Gray Catbird) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of of food & uses these trees for protective cover & nesting sites] DGr2002, Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird) [feeds on the fruits & uses these trees for protective cover & nesting sites] DGr2002; Odontophoridae: Colinus virginianus (Bobwhite Quail) [feeds on fruits & seeds & buds] DGr2002; Paridae: Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [fruits & buds & leaves comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Northeast, Maine, & Ohio during fall & winter, feeds on buds in Wisconsin & Ontario during fall & winter, feeds on fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 Bnn1900 DGr2002, Phasianus colchicus (Ring-necked Pheasant) [fruits & buds comprise 5-10% of the diet in New York during winter & spring, feeds on fruits & buds & seeds as preferred sources of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Paridae: Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during fall & winter] MZN1951; Picidae: Melanerpes carolinus (Red-bellied Woodpecker) [feeds on the fruits & seeds as preferred sources of food] DGr2002, Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Red-headed Woodpecker) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East, feeds on the fruits & seeds as preferred sources of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East & Eastern Prairies, feeds on the fruits & seeds] MZN1951 DGr2002, Picoides villosus (Hairy Woodpecker) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East & Eastern Prairies, feeds on the fruits & seeds] MZN1951 DGr2002, Sphyrapicus varius (Yellow-bellied Sapsucker) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East, feeds on the tree sap & fruits & seeds as preferred sources of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Psittacidae: Conuropsis carolinensis (Carolina Parakeet) [fruits & seeds of high importance, flowers & buds of minor importance, as sources of food] Snd2004; Sturnidae: Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during fall & winter, feeds on the fruits & seeds as preferred sources of food & uses these trees for nesting sites in cavities] MZN1951 DGr2002; Trochilidae: Archilochus colubris (Ruby-throated Hummingbird) [feeds on nectar of the flowers & uses these trees for protective cover & nesting sites] DGr2002; Turdidae: Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird) [uses these trees for protective cover & nesting sites in cavities] DGr2002, Turdus migratorius (American Robin) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA & Eastern Prairies, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these trees for protective cover & nesting sites] MZN1951 DGr2002; Tyrannidae: Myiarchus crinitus (Great Crested Flycatcher) [uses these trees for protective habitat & nesting sites in cavities] DGr2002, Tyrannus tyrannus (Eastern Kingbird) [uses these trees as nesting sites] DGr2002; Vireonidae: Vireo olivaceus (Red-eyed Vireo) [uses these trees for protective cover & nesting sites] DGr2002

Mammals

Canidae: Urocyon cineroargenteus (Gray Fox) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during winter, fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in SE USA] MZN1951, Vulpes vulpes fulvus (American Red Fox) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA, fruits comprise 10-25% of the diet in Massachusetts during fall & winter] MZN1951; Cervidae: Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [the fruits have moderate importance as a food source, twigs & fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in New York during winter, foliage & twigs & fruits comprise 0.5-5% of the diet in Pennsylvania & the North Carolina mountains] SK1973 MZN1951; Cricetidae: Microtus ochrogaster  (Prairie Vole) [feeds on the bark of saplings & fruits of these trees] MZN1951, Microtus pennsylvanicus (Meadow Vole) [feeds on the bark of saplings & fruits of these trees] MZN1951, Microtus pinetorum (Woodland Vole) [feeds on shoots & roots & fruits] MZN1951; Didelphidae: Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Erethizontidae: Erethizon dorsatum (North American Porcupine) [the fruits & inner bark of these trees comprise 2-5% of the diet in Vermont during winter] MZN1951; Leporidae: Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail) [bark comprises 0.5-10% of the diet in Connecticut & Michigan & Iowa during winter] MZN1951; Sciuridae: Ictidomys tridecemlineatus (Thirteen-lined Ground Squirrel) [fruits and/or seeds comprise 0.5% of the diet by volume and 0.7% by frequency in Indiana] Wh1972, Sciurus niger (Fox Squirrel) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Ohio] MZN1951; Ursidae: Ursus americanus (American Black Bear) [feeds on fruits to a minor extent, fruits comprise 5-10% of the diet in Pennsylvania & Virginia & West Virginia during the fall & winter] BP1980 MZN1951
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