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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Cornus spp.
(Dogwood) [Cornaceae]
(observations are from Martin et al., Schorger, Ernst et al., Lagler, DeGraaf, Yeatter, DeVore et al., and Beal)

Birds

Anatidae: 
Aix sponsa (Wood Duck) [the fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northeast; the fruits comprise 10-25% of the diet in New York during the summer, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Bombycillidae: Bombycilla cedrorum (Cedar Waxwing) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Cardinalidae: Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal) [fruits comprise 5-10% of the diet in NE USA during summer & fall & winter, fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in SE USA, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these shrubs for protective cover] MZN1951 DGr2002, Piranga olivacea (Scarlet Tanager) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Columbidae: Ectopistes migratorius (Passenger Pigeon) [fruits often used as food] Sch1955; Corvidae: Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow) [fruits comprise 0.5-5% of the diet in the eastern USA & Prairie region during summer & fall & winter, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Emberizidae: Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 Dv2004; Fringillidae: Coccothraustes vespertinus (Evening Grosbeak) [fruits comprise 25-50% of the diet in NE USA during winter & spring, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Haemorhous purpureus (Purple Finch) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in E USA during fall, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Pinicola enucleator (Pine Grosbeak) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during winter, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Hirundinidae: Tachycineta bicolor (Tree Swallow) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in inland areas of eastern USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Icteridae: Euphagus carolinus (Rusty Blackbird) [feeds on the fruits] Dv2004; Mimidae: Dumetella carolinensis (Gray Catbird) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during summer & fall, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these shrubs for protective cover, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002 Dv2004, Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in SE USA, feeds on the fruits & uses these shrubs for protective cover] MZN1951 DGr2002, Toxostoma rufum (Brown Thrasher) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA & Eastern Prairies during summer & fall, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these shrubs for protective cover] MZN1951 DGr2002; Odontophoridae: Colinus virginianus (Bobwhite Quail) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these shrubs for protective cover] DGr2002; Parulidae: Setophaga pinus (Pine Warbler) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [fruits & buds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northeast during winter, fruits & buds comprise 2-10% of the diet in the Virginia Alleghenies & Wisconsin & Ohio during fall & winter, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these shrubs for protective cover] MZN1951 DGr2002, Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Allegheny Mountains during summer, fruits comprise 5-25% of the diet in Virginia & Missouri during fall & winter, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these shrubs for protective cover] MZN1951 DGr2002, Phasianus colchicus (Ring-necked Pheasant) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northeast, feeds on the fruits & uses these shrubs for protective cover] MZN1951 DGr2002, Tympanuchus cupido (Greater Prairie Chicken) [fruits & buds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Wisconsin during summer, fruits comprise 3.5% of the diet in Wisconsin] MZN1951 Yt1943; Picidae: Colaptes auratus (Northern Flicker) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in the East & Eastern Prairies during the summer & fall & winter, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002 Dv2004, Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Melanerpes carolinus (Red-bellied Woodpecker) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in the East & Eastern Prairies during fall & winter, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Picoides villosus (Hairy Woodpecker) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East & Eastern Prairies, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Sphyrapicus varius (Yellow-bellied Sapsucker) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in the East during fall & winter, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Scolopacidae: Scolopax minor (American Woodcock) [uses these shrubs for protective cover] DGr2002; Sturnidae: Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Turdidae: Catharus fuscescens (Veery) [feeds on the fruits] Dv2004, Catharus guttatus (Hermit Thrush) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these shrubs for protective cover, feeds on the fruits] DGr2002 Dv2004, Catharus minimus (Grey-cheeked Thrush) [fruits comprise 5-10% of the diet in NE USA during the fall, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these shrubs for protective cover] MZN1951 DGr2002, Catharus ustulatus (Swainson's Thrush) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during fall, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these shrubs for protective cover] MZN1951 DGr2002, Hylocichla mustelina (Wood Thrush) [fruits comprise 5-10% of the diet in NE USA during summer & fall, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these shrubs for protective cover] MZN1951 DGr2002, Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during fall & winter, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these shrubs for protective cover, fruits of unidentified dogwood shrubs were eaten rarely] MZN1951 DGr2002 Be1915, Turdus migratorius (American Robin) [fruits comprise 5-10% of the diet in NE USA during fall & winter, fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Eastern Prairies, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these shrubs for protective cover, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002 Dv2004; Tyrannidae: Empidonax traillii (Willow Flycatcher) [uses these shrubs for protective cover & nest sites] DGr2002, Myiarchus crinitus (Great Crested Flycatcher) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Eastern USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Tyrannus tyrannus (Eastern Kingbird) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in eastern USA during summer & fall, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these shrubs for protective cover] MZN1951 DGr2002; Vireonidae: Vireo gilvus (Warbling Vireo) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA & Eastern Prairies during summer & fall, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Vireo olivaceus (Red-eyed Vireo) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in eastern USA during fall & winter, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002 Dv2004, Vireo solitarius (Blue-headed Vireo) [feeds on the fruits] Dv2004

Mammals
Castoridae: Castor canadensis (American Beaver) [the wood & bark of these shrubs are a source of food in Missouri] MZN1951; Cervidae: Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [twigs comprise 2-5% of the diet in New York during winter, foliage & twigs comprise 2-5% of the diet in the North Carolina mountains during summer & fall & winter] MZN1951; Cricetidae: Peromyscus leucopus (White-footed Mouse) [fruits and/or seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA] MZN1951; Leporidae: Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail) [bark comprises 0.5-2% of the diet in Connecticut, bark comprises 5-10% of the diet in Michigan during winter] MZN1951; Sciuridae: Sciurus niger (Fox Squirrel) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in Ohio & Michigan during summer & fall & winter] MZN1951

Turtles
Chelydridae: 
Chelydra serpentina (Snapping Turtle) [probably feeds on fallen leaves] Lg1943; Emydidae: Trachemys scripta (Slider) [probably feeds on fallen leaves] EBL1994
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