Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:


Betula populifera
(Gray Birch) [Betulaceae]
(observations are from Martin et al. and DeGraaf)

Anatidae: Aix sponsa (Wood Duck) [feeds on the seeds] DGR2002, Anas crecca carolinensis (Green-winged Teal) [feeds on the seeds] DGr2002; Corvidae: Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay) [feeds on the seeds] DGr2002; Emberizidae: Junco hyemalis (Dark-eyed Junco) [feeds on the seeds] DGr2002; Fringillidae: Acanthis flammea (Common Redpoll) [feeds on the seeds] DGr2002, Spinus pinus (Pine Siskin) [feeds on the seeds] DGr2002, Spinus tristis (American Goldfinch) [feeds on the seeds] DGr2002; Paridae: Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse) [feeds on the seeds] DGr2002, Poecile atricapillus (Black-capped Chickadee) [feeds on the seeds & uses this tree for protective cover & nesting sites in cavities] DGr2002; Phasianidae: Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey) [feeds on the seeds] DGr2002, Phasianus colchicus (Ring-necked Pheasant) [feeds on the seeds] DGr2002; Picidae: Sphyrapicus varius (Yellow-bellied Sapsucker) [feeds on the tree sap] DGr2002; Scolopacidae: Scolopax minor (American Woodcock) [uses this tree for protective cover] DGr2002


Leporidae: Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail) [bark comprises 2-5% of the diet in Connecticut during winter & spring] MZN1951