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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Larix laricina
(Tamarack) [Pinaceae]
(observations are from DeGraaf and Ludewig & Bowyer; this tree is also referred to as American Larch and Eastern Larch)

Birds

Corvidae: Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay) [uses this tree for protective cover & nesting sites] DGr2002; Fringillidae: Haemorhous purpureus (Purple Finch) [the seeds are preferred as a source of food & this tree is used for protective cover] DGr2002, Loxia curvirostra (Red Crossbill) [
the seeds are preferred as a source of food & uses this tree for protective cover] DGr2002, Loxia leucoptera (White-winged Crossbill) [the seeds are preferred as a source of food & uses this tree for protective cover] DGr2002, Spinus pinus (Pine Siskin) [feeds on the seeds & uses this tree for protective cover] DGr2002; Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [feeds on the buds & seeds & needle-like leaves] DGr2002, Phasianus colchicus (Ring-necked Pheasant) [feeds on the seeds] DGr2002; Turdidae: Turdus migratorius (American Robin) [uses this tree for protective cover & nesting sites] DGr2002

Mammals
Cervidae: Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [this tree provides 3.5% of the winter diet in Maine] LdBw1985

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