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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Carex spp.
(Sedge) [Cyperaceae]
(observations are from Lewis, Schwartz, Martin et al., Ernst et al., Hamerstrom & Blake, Augustine, Romain et al., Korschgen, Bellrose, Meanley, Buech, DeVore et al., and Myers et al.)

Birds

Alaudidae: Eremophila alpestris (Horned Lark) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in eastern USA during fall, winter, & spring] MZN1951; Anatidae: Aix sponsa (Wood Duck) [these plants comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Northeast during winter & spring] MZN1951, Anas acuta (Northern Pintail) [these plants comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northeast] MZN1951, Anas americana (American Wigeon) [these plants comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northeast] MZN1951, Anas clypeata (Northern Shoveler) [these plants comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Southeast] MZN1951, Anas crecca carolinensis (Green-winged Teal) [these plants comprise 5-10% of the diet in the Northeast during winter & spring, feeds on seeds] MZN1951 Blr1942, Anas discors (Blue-winged Teal) [these plants comprise 2-5% of the diet during spring & fall, feeds on seeds] MZN1951 Blr1942, Anas rubripes (Black Duck) [feeds on seeds] Blr1942, Aythya affinis (Lesser Scaup) [these plants comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northeast] MZN1951, Aythya americana (Redhead) [these plants comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northeast] MZN1951, Aythya collaris (Ring-necked Duck) [these plants comprise 0.5%-2% of the diet in the Northeast, both adults & ducklings feed on seeds] MZN1951 Blr1942, Bucephala clangula (Common Goldeneye) [these plants comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northeast] MZN1951, Cygnus buccinator (Trumpeter Swan) [feeds on seeds] Blr1942; Calcaridae: Calcarius lapponicus (Lapland Longspur) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in NE USA & Northern Prairies during fall & spring] MZN1951, Calcarius pictus (Smith's Longspur) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Illinois during spring] MZN1951, Plectrophenax nivalis (Snow Bunting) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during winter] MZN1951; Cardinalidae: Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA & SE USA throughout the year] MZN1951; Columbidae: Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove) [seeds of minor importance as a source of food] Lws1993; Emberizidae: Junco hyemalis (Dark-eyed Junco) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA & the Prairie region, feeds on the seeds] MZN1951 Dv2004, Melospiza georgiana (Swamp Sparrow) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in NE USA throughout the year] MZN1951, Melospiza lincolnii (Lincoln Sparrow) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in NE USA during spring] MZN1951, Melospiza melodia (Song Sparrow) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during winter] MZN1951, Passerculus sandwichensis (Savannah Sparrow) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Southern Prairies during winter] MZN1951, Pipilo erythrophthalmus (Eastern Towhee) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during spring & summer] MZN1951, Spizelloides arborea (American Tree Sparrow) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in NE USA during fall & winter] MZN1951; Fringillidae: Acanthis flammea (Common Redpoll) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in N USA] MZN1951; Parulidae: Setophaga kirtlandii (Kirtland's Warbler) [these sedges provided protective cover & they were located within 1 meter of the nest sites 100% of the time in Michigan] Bch1980; Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northeast during winter] MZN1951, Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Pennsylvania & Virginia, seeds & perigynia have average importance in the diet in Arkansas during the summer, seeds have minor importance in the diet in Arkansas during the winter] MZN1951 Mn1956, Phasianus colchicus (Ring-necked Pheasant) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in New York] MZN1951, Tympanuchus cupido (Greater Prairie Chicken) [spikelets & seeds eaten during late spring for 1 month, seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in Wisconsin during summer, these plants are above average in importance as a source of food in Missouri] Swz1945 MZN1951 Krs1962; Rallidae: Coturnicops noveboracensis (Yellow Rail) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in the East during fall] MZN1951, Fulica americana (Common Coot) [these plants comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northeast] MZN1951, Porzana carolina (Sora) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in the Northeast throughout the year] MZN1951, Rallus limicola (Virginia Rail) [seeds comprise 0.5–2% of the diet in the Northeast] MZN1951; Scolopacidae: Calidris fuscicollis (White-rumped Sandpiper) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East] MZN1951, Calidris himantopus (Stilt Sandpiper) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East] MZN1951, Gallinago delicata (Wilson's Snipe) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northeast] MZN1951, Limnodromus scolopaceus (Long-billed Dowitcher) [feeds on seeds] Dv2004, Scolopax minor (American Woodcock) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East] MZN1951

Mammals
Cervidae: Alces americanus (American Moose) [foliage comprises 5-10% of the diet from Maine to Michigan during winter, the foliage comprises 0.5-2% of the diet in Isle Royale of Michigan] MZN1951, Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [these plants are not eaten, foliage comprises 2-5% of the diet in the North Carolina mountains during spring, 3-4% of deer droppings contained viable seeds of these plants in New York] Agn1997 MZN1951 Myr2004; Cricetidae: Ondatra zibethicus (Muskrat) [the culms have minor value as a food source] HB1939; Sciuridae: Sciurus carolinensis (Eastern Gray Squirrel) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA] MZN1951; Ursidae: Ursus americanus (American Black Bear) [seeds & leaves comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Virginia & West Virginia during winter, foliage of these sedges has lesser to greater importance to the diet in Ontario depending on the species] MZN1951

Turtles
Chelydridrae: Chelydra serpentina (Snapping Turtle) [feeds on plant] EBL1994; Kinosternidae: Kinosternon subrubrum (Eastern Mud Turtle) [feeds on seeds] EBL1994
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