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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Acer negundo
(Box Elder) [Aceraceae]
(observations are from DeGraaf, Ludewig & Bowyer, Veilleux et al., Baerwald et al., Shimp & Shimp, Mu╠nzer, Homan et al., Belthoff & Ritchison, Heckscher, Jackson, Gabbe et al., and DeVore et al.)

Birds

Cardinalidae: Piranga olivacea (Scarlet Tanager) [this bird has a below-average preference for foraging for insects on this tree in southern Illinois] GRB2002, Piranga rubra (Summer Tanager) [this bird has an average preference for foraging for insects on this tree in southern Illinois] GRB2002; Cuculidae: Coccyzus americanus (Yellow-billed Cuckoo) [this bird has an average preference for foraging for insects on this tree in southern Illinois] GRB2002; Fringillidae: Coccothraustes vespertinus (Evening Grosbeak) [the seeds are a preferred source of food & this tree provides protective cover] DGr2002, Haemorhous purpureus (Purple Finch) [feeds on seeds & this tree provides nesting habitat, feeds on seeds] DGr2002 Dv2004, Pinicola enucleator (Pine Grosbeak) [feeds on seeds] DGr2002; Icteridae: Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle) [this tree was used 11.9% of the time as a nest site in North Dakota and it had average preference for this purpose] Hmn1996; Paridae: Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse) [this bird has an average preference for foraging for insects on this tree in southern Illinois] GRB2002, Poecile carolinensis (Carolina Chickadee) [this bird has an average preference for foraging for insects on this tree in southern Illinois] GRB2002; Parulidae: Protonotaria citrea (Prothonotary Warbler) [this bird has an above-average preference for foraging for insects on this tree in southern Illinois] GRB2002, Setophaga americana (Northern Parula) [this bird has an average preference for foraging for insects on this tree in southern Illinois] GRB2002, Setophaga cerulea (Cerulean Warbler) [this bird has a below-average preference for foraging for insects on this tree in southern Illinois] GRB2002, Setophaga dominica (Yellow-throated Warbler) [this bird has a below-average preference for foraging for insects on this tree in southern Illinois] GRB2002, Setophaga petechia (Yellow Warbler) [uses this tree for protective cover & nesting habitat] DGr2002; Phasianidae: Phasianus colchicus (Ring-necked Phesant) [feeds on seeds] DGr2002; Picidae: Melanerpes carolinus (Red-bellied Woodpecker) [this tree was selected 7.3% of the time for nest sites in cavities in Kansas] Jck1976; Polioptilidae: Polioptila caerulea (Blue-gray Gnatcatcher) [this bird has an average preference for foraging for insects on this tree in southern Illinois] GRB2002; Strigidae: Megascops asio (Eastern Screech Owl) [this tree provided 4.3% of the roost sites for young owls in Kentucky & it had above-average preference for this purpose] BR1990; Turdidae: Catharus fuscescens (Veery) [saplings of this tree were selected 3% of the time for the nest sites of this bird in Delaware] Hck2004; Tyrannidae: Empidonax virescens (Acadian Flycatcher) [this bird has an above-average preference for foraging for insects on this tree in southern Illinois] GRB2002; Vireonidae: Vireo flavifrons (Yellow-throated Vireo) [this bird has an average preference for foraging for insects on this tree in southern Illinois] GRB2002, Vireo olivacea (Red-eyed Vireo) [this bird has an average preference for foraging for insects on this tree in southern Illinois] GRB2002

Mammals
Cervidae: Alces americanus (American Moose) [this tree provides 0.3% of the winter diet in Maine] LdBw1985, Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [this tree provides 1.7% of the winter diet in Maine] LdBw1985; Vespertilionidae: Lasiurus cinereus (Hoary Bat) [foliage of this tree was selected 42.1% of the time for summer roost sites by nursing females in Manitoba, the foliage of this tree is used for roost sites] BGB2012 SS1982,
Nycticeius humeralis (Evening Bat) [cavities and/or exfoliating bark of this tree provided 3% of the roost sites in Michigan] Mnz2008, Perimyotis subflavus (Tricolored Bat) [dead or live foliage of this tree was selected 21.6% of the time as summer roost sites by maternal colonies in Indiana & this tree has above-average preference for this purpose] VWV2003
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