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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Acer negundo
(Box Elder) [Aceraceae]
(observations are from DeGraaf, Ludewig & Bowyer, Veilleux et al., Baerwald et al., Shimp & Shimp, and Mu╠nzer)

Birds

Fringillidae: Coccothraustes vespertinus (Evening Grosbeak) [the seeds are a preferred source of food & this tree provides protective cover] DGr2002, Haemorhous purpureus (Purple Finch) [feeds on seeds & this tree provides nesting habitat] DGr2002, Pinicola enucleator (Pine Grosbeak) [feeds on seeds] DGr2002; Parulidae: Setophaga petechia (Yellow Warbler) [uses this tree for protective cover & nesting habitat] DGr2002; Phasianidae: Phasianus colchicus (Ring-necked Phesant) [feeds on seeds] DGr2002

Mammals
Cervidae: Alces americanus (American Moose) [this tree provides 0.3% of the winter diet in Maine] LdBw1985, Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [this tree provides 1.7% of the winter diet in Maine] LdBw1985; Vespertilionidae: Lasiurus cinereus (Hoary Bat) [foliage of this tree was selected 42.1% of the time for summer roost sites by nursing females in Manitoba, the foliage of this tree is used for roost sites] BGB2012 SS1982,
Nycticeius humeralis (Evening Bat) [cavities and/or exfoliating bark of this tree provided 3% of the roost sites in Michigan] Mnz2008, Perimyotis subflavus (Tricolored Bat) [dead or live foliage of this tree was selected 21.6% of the time as summer roost sites by maternal colonies in Indiana & this tree has above-average preference for this purpose] VWV2003
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