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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Ilex opaca
(Ameican Holly) [Aquifoliaceae]
(observations are from DeGraaf, Hooper & Hamel, and Beal)

Birds

Bombycillidae: Bombycilla cedrorum (Cedar Waxwing) [the fruits are preferred as a source of food & uses this tree for protective cover] DGr2002; Cardinalidae: Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal) [feeds on fruits & uses this tree for protective cover & nesting habitat] DGr2002; Mimidae: Dumetella carolinensis (Gray Catbird) [feeds on fruits & uses this tree for protective cover & nesting habitat] DGr2002, Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird) [the fruits are a preferred source of food & uses this tree for protective cover & nesting habitat] DGr2002, Toxostoma rufum (Brown Thrasher) [feeds on fruits & uses this tree for protective cover] DGr2002; Odontophoridae: Colinus virginianus (Bobwhite Quail) [feeds on fruits & this tree provides protective cover] DGr2002; Parulidae: Vermivora bachmanii (Bachman's Warbler) [this tree infrequently provided support and/or concealment for the nests of this possibly extinct bird] HH1977; Phasianidae: Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002; Picidae: Colaptes auratus (Northern Flicker) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002, Melanerpes carolinus  (Red-bellied Woodpecker) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002, Sphyrapicus varius  (Yellow-bellied Sapsucker) [feeds on sap] DGr2002; Turdidae: Catharus guttatus (Hermit Thrush) [feeds on fruits & uses this tree for protective cover] DGr2002, Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird) [the fruits are preferred as a source of food] DGr2002, Turdus migratorius (American Robin) [feeds on fruits & uses this tree for protective cover & nesting habitat, the fruits are eaten frequently] DGr2002 Be1915
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