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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Pinus spp.
(Pine) [Pinaceae]
(observations are from Snyder and Martin et al.)

Birds

Certhiidae: Certhia americana (Brown Creeper) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the USA during spring & fall] MZN1951; Emberizidae:
Junco hyemalis (Dark-eyed Junco) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Fringillidae: Loxia curvirostra (Red Crossbill) [seeds comprise 66% of the diet in the USA throughout the year] MZN1951, Loxia leucoptera (White-winged Crossbill) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in NE USA during winter] MZN1951, Pinicola enucleator (Pine Grosbeak) [seeds comprise 25-50% of the diet in NE USA during winter] MZN1951, Spinus tristis (American Goldfinch) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA] MZN1951; Paridae: Poecile atricapillus (Black-capped Chickadee) [seeds comprise 5-10% of diet in NE USA during fall, winter, & spring] MZN1951, Poecile carolinensis (Carolina Chickadee) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in SE USA during fall, winter, & spring] MZN1951; Parulidae: Setophaga coronata (Yellow-rumped Warbler) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in eastern USA] MZN1951, Setophaga pinus (Pine Warbler) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in eastern USA during fall & winter] MZN1951; Phasianidae: Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Missouri] MZN1951; Picidae: Melanerpes carolinus (Red-bellied Woodpecker) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the East during fall & winter] MZN1951, Sphyrapicus varius (Yellow-bellied Sapsucker) [drills holes in wood & sucks sap in the East] MZN1951; Psittacidae: Conuropsis carolinensis (Carolina Parakeet) [seeds of major importance as a source of food] Snd2004; Sittidae: Sitta canadensis (Red-breasted Nuthatch) [seeds comprise 25-50% of the diet in E USA during fall & winter] MZN1951, Sitta carolinensis (White-breasted Nuthatch) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in E USA and eastern Prairies during winter] MZN1951; Troglodytidae: Thryothorus ludovicianus (Carolina Wren) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA] MZN1951

Mammals
Cervidae: Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [foliage & twigs comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Pennsylvania, foliage & twigs comprise 2-10% of the diet in Wisconsin & Minnesota & the Carolina mountains during winter & spring] MZN1951; Cricetidae: Peromyscus leucopus (White-footed Mouse) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in E USA during fall & winter] MZN1951; Erethizontidae: Erethizon dorsatum (North American Porcupine) [these trees comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Sciuridae: Sciurus carolinensis (Eastern Gray Squirrel) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in E USA during fall & winter] MZN1951, Sciurus niger (Fox Squirrel) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Michigan] MZN1951, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus (American Red Squirrel) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in E USA during fall & winter] MZN1951
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