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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Gaylussacia spp.
(Huckleberry) [Ericaceae]
(observations are from Martin et al., Beeman & Pelton, and DeGraaf)

Birds

Bombycillidae: Bombycilla cedrorum (Cedar Waxwing) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Cardinalidae: Piranga olivacea (Scarlet Tanager) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Columbidae: Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove) [feeds on the fruits & uses these shrubs for protective cover] DGr2002; Corvidae: Corvus ossifragus (Fish Crow) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Emberizidae: Pipilo erythrophthalmus (Eastern Towhee) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits & uses these shrubs for protective cover] MZN1951 DGr2002; Fringillidae: Loxia leucoptera (White-winged Crossbill) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Pinicola enucleator (Pine Grosbeak) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Icteridae: Icterus spurius (Orchard Oriole) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Mimidae: Dumetella carolinensis (Gray Catbird) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these shrubs for protective cover & nest sites] DGr2002, Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird) [feeds on the fruits & uses these shrubs for protective cover & nest sites] DGr2002, Toxostoma rufum (Brown Thrasher) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Odontophoridae: Colinus virginianus (Bobwhite Quail) [feeds on the fruits & uses these shrubs for protective cover] DGr2002; Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus  (Ruffed Grouse) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in Pennsylvania during fall, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these shrubs for protective cover] MZN1951 DGr2002, Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in Pennsylvania throughout the year, feeds on the fruits & uses these shrubs for protective cover] MZN1951 DGr2002, Phasianus colchicus (Ring-necked Pheasant) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Picidae: Colaptes auratus (Northern Flicker) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Red-headed Woodpecker) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Turdidae: Catharus guttatus (Hermit Thrush) [feeds on the fruits & uses these shrubs for protective cover] DGr2002, Hylocichla mustelina (Wood Thrush) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Turdus migratorius (American Robin) [feeds on the fruits & uses these shrubs for protective cover & nest sites] DGr2002; Tyrannidae: Myiarchus crinitus (Great Crested Flycatcher) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Tyrannus tyrannus (Eastern Kingbird) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002

Mammals
Cervidae: Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [foliage & twigs & fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in Maine] MZN1951; Sciuridae: Sciurus niger (Fox Squirrel) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Ohio] MZN1951; Ursidae: Ursus americanus (American Black Bear) [feeds on fruits to a major extent] BP1980
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