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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Rubus spp.
(Blackberry, Raspberry, Dewberry) [Rosaceae]
(observations are from Whitaker & Mumford, Hamilton, Snyder, Schwartz, Martin et al., Ernst et al., Beeman & Pelton, Hamerstrom & Blake, Whitaker, Lagler, Sotala & Kirkpatrick, Korschgen, Bennetts, Romain et al., Mosnier et al., Meanley, Havera, DeGraaf, Hooper & Hamel, Yeatter, Bielefeldt & Rosenfeld, DeVore et al., Myers et al., and Beal)

Birds
Anatidae: Aythya affinis (Lesser Scaup) [probably feeds on the fruits of these woody plants] Hv1999; Bombycillidae: Bombycilla cedrorum (Cedar Waxwing) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during summer, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Cardinalidae: Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, fruits comprise 5-10% of the diet in SE USA during summer, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these woody plants for protective cover & nest sites] MZN1951 DGr2002, Passerina caerulea (Blue Grosbeak) [feeds on the fruits & uses these woody plants for protective cover & nest sites] DGr2002, Passerina cyanea (Indigo Bunting) [feeds on the fruits & uses these woody plants for protective cover & nest sites] MZN1951 DGr2002, Pheucticus ludovicianus (Rose-breasted Grosbeak) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA & Northern Prairies during summer & fall, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Piranga olivacea (Scarlet Tanager) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during summer, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Piranga rubra (Summer Tanager) [fruits comprise 10-25% of the diet in SE USA during spring & summer, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Columbidae: Ectopistes migratorius (Passenger Pigeon) [fruits often used a source of food] Sch1955; Corvidae: Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Corvus ossifragus (Fish Crow) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in E USA during summer & fall, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Emberizidae: Ammodramus henslowii (Henslow's Sparrow) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during summer, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Melospiza melodia (Song Sparrow) [feeds on the fruits & uses these woody plants for protective cover & nest sites, feeds on the fruits] DGr2002 Dv2004, Passerella iliaca (Fox Sparrow) [fruits comprise 5-10% of the diet in E USA during winter & spring, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these woody plants for protective cover] MZN1951 DGr2002, Pipilo erythrophthalmus (Eastern Towhee) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during spring & summer & fall, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Spizella pusilla (Field Sparrow) [feeds on the fruits & uses these woody plants for protective cover & nest sites] DGr2002, Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Fringillidae: Coccothraustes vespertinus (Evening Grosbeak) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Pinicola enucleator (Pine Grosbeak) [fruits comprise 10-25% of the diet in NE USA during fall & winter, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Icteridae: Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Euphagus carolinus (Rusty Blackbird) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA & Canada, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Icterus galbula (Baltimore Oriole) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during summer, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Icterus spurius (Orchard Oriole) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA & the Eastern Prairies, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle) [fruits comprise 0.5-5% of the diet in NE USA & the Prairie region during summer, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Mimidae: Dumetella carolinensis (Gray Catbird) [fruits comprise 10-25% of the diet in NE USA during summer & fall, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these woody plants for protective cover & nest sites] MZN1951 DGr2002, Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in SE USA during summer, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these woody plants for protective cover & nest sites] MZN1951 DGr2002, Toxostoma rufum (Brown Thrasher) [fruits comprise 5-10% of the diet in NE USA during summer, fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Eastern Prairies, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these woody plants for protective cover & nest sites] MZN1951 DGr2002; Odontophoridae: Colinus virginianus (Bobwhite Quail) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Northeast during summer, feeds on fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Paridae: Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during summer & winter, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Parulidae: Icteria virens (Yellow-breasted Chat) [fruits comprise 10-25% of the diet in eastern USA during summer, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these woody plants for protective cover & nest sites, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002 Dv2004, Setophaga citrina (Hooded Warbler) [these woody plants were used as support for 20.8% of all nests in Wisconsin] BfRf2001, Vermivora bachmanii (Bachman's Warbler) [these woody plants often provided support and/or concealment for the nests of this possibly extinct bird] HH1977; Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [buds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Northeast during winter, fruits comprise 2-10% of the diet in Maine & Pennsylvania & Wisconsin during summer & fall, feeds on fruits in Wisconsin & Ontario during fall & winter, feeds on fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 Bnn1900 DGr2002, Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey) [fruits comprise 0.5-5% of the diet in the Allegheny Mountains & Missouri during summer, fruits have major importance in the diet in Arkansas during summer, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 Mn1956 DGr2002, Phasianus colchicus (Ring-necked Pheasant) [fruits comprise 10-25% of the diet in New York during summer, feeds on fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these woody plants for protective cover] MZN1951 DGr2002, Tympanuchus cupido (Greater Prairie Chicken) [eats fruits during the summer for 1 month, fruits comprise 10-25% of the diet in SE Illinois during summer, fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in Wisconsin during summer, these woody plants have below average importance as a source of food in Missouri, fruits comprise 3.1% of the diet in Wisconsin] Swz1945 MZN1951 Krs1962 Yt1943; Picidae: Colaptes auratus (Northern Flicker) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East & Eastern Prairies, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002 Dv2004, Melanerpes carolinus (Red-bellied Woodpecker) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Red-headed Woodpecker) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Picoides villosus (Hairy Woodpecker) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Psittacidae: Conuropsis carolinensis (Carolina Parakeet) [fruits of minor importance as a source of food] Snd2004; Scolopacidae: Scolopax minor (American Woodcock) [seedy fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East] MZN1951; Turdidae: Catharus fuscescens (Veery) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during summer, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these woody plants for protective cover, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002 Dv2004, Catharus guttatus (Hermit Thrush) [feeds on the fruits] Dv2004, Catharus minimus (Grey-cheeked Thrush) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Catharus ustulatus (Swainson's Thrush) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002 Dv2004, Hylocichla mustelina (Wood Thrush) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during summer, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits, the fruits are eaten frequently] MZN1951 DGr2002 Be1915, Turdus migratorius (American Robin) [fruits comprise 0.5-5% of the diet in NE USA & Eastern Prairies during summer, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food, the fruits are eaten frequently] MZN1951 DGr2002 Be1915; Tyrannidae: Empidonax alnorum (Alder Flycatcher) [feeds on the fruits & uses these woody plants for protective cover & nest sites] DGr2002, Empidonax traillii (Willow Flycatcher) [feeds on the fruits & uses these woody plants for protective cover & nest sites] DGr2002, Myiarchus crinitus (Great Crested Flycatcher) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Eastern USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Sayornis phoebe (Eastern Phoebe) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in eastern USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Tyrannus tyrannus (Eastern Kingbird) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in eastern USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Vireonidae: Vireo griseus (White-eyed Vireo) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in SE USA, feeds on the fruits & uses these woody plants for protective cover & nest sites] MZN1951 DGr2002, Vireo olivaceus (Red-eyed Vireo) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002

Mammals

Canidae: Urocyon cineroargenteus (Gray Fox) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in SE USA] MZN1951, Vulpes vulpes fulvus (American Red Fox) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA] MZN1951; Cervidae: Alces americanus (American Moose) [feeds on the foliage & canes of these shrubby plants from Maine to Michigan during the summer] MZN1951, Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [the leaves & canes have moderate importance as a food source, the leaves & canes comprise 0.5–10% of the diet in Maine & Pennsylvania, the canes comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in New York during winter, 2-3% of deer droppings contained viable seeds of unidentified species of these woody plants in New York] SK1973 MZN1951 Myr2004; Cricetidae: Ondatra zibethicus (Muskrat) [the roots have minor value as a food source] HB1939, Peromyscus leucopus (White-footed Mouse) [eats fruits and/or seeds, fruits & seeds comprise 0.8% of the diet by volume] Hm1941 Wh1966, Peromyscus maniculatus (Deer Mouse) [eats fruits and/or seeds] HM1941; Didelphidae: Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Missouri] MZN1951; Dipodidae: Napaeozapus insignis (Woodland Jumping Mouse) [eats fruits and/or seeds] Hm1941, Zapus hudsonius (Meadow Jumping Mouse) [fruits of these plants comprise 0.6% of the diet volume] WM1970; Leporidae: Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail) [stems comprise 5-10% of the diet in Connecticut & Michigan throughout the year, stems comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Iowa during winter] MZN1951; Procyonidae: Procyon lotor (Raccoon) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in Iowa during summer] MZN1951; Sciuridae: Sciurus carolinensis (Eastern Gray Squirrel) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA] MZN1951, Sciurus niger (Fox Squirrel) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA & Ohio & Michigan during summer & fall] MZN1951, Tamias minimus (Least Chipmunk) [fruits comprise 10-25% of the diet in Minnesota during late summer & early fall] MZN1951, Tamias striatus (Eastern Chipmunk) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during summer] MZN1951; Ursidae: Ursus americanus (American Black Bear) [feeds on fruits to a major extent, fruits occur in the diet about 36% of the time in Ontario, fruits are a major dietary item during the summer] BP1980 ROA2013 MOC2008

Turtles
Emydidae: Glyptemys insculpta (Wood Turtle) [feeds on dewberry fruits] Lg1943, Terrapene carolina (Eastern Box Turtle) [feeds on dewberry fruits] EBL1994 Lg1943, Terrapene ornata (Ornate Box Turtle) [feeds on fruits] EBL1994; Kinosternidae: Kinosternon subrubrum (Eastern Mud Turtle) [feeds on fruits] EBL1994
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