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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Amelanchier spp.
(Serviceberry, Juneberry) [Rosaceae]
(observations are from Hamilton, Martin et al., Schorger, Beeman & Pelton, Romain et al., Mosnier et al., DeGraaf, Johnson et al., Homan et al., Buech, Noyce & Coy, DeVore et al., and Beal)

Birds
Bombycillidae: Bombycilla cedrorum (Cedar Waxwing) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during summer, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Cardinalidae: Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Pheucticus ludovicianus (Rose-breasted Grosbeak) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA & Northern Prairies, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Piranga olivacea (Scarlet Tanager) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Columbidae: Ectopistes migratorius (Passenger Pigeon) [fruits often used as food] Sch1955, Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Corvidae: Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA & the Prairie region, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Emberizidae: Junco hyemalis (Dark-eyed Junco) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Melospiza melodia (Song Sparrow) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Pipilo erythrophthalmus (Eastern Towhee) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits & uses these small trees for protective cover] MZN1951 DGr2002; Fringillidae: Coccothraustes vespertinus (Evening Grosbeak) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Pinicola enucleator (Pine Grosbeak) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Spinus tristis (American Goldfinch) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Icteridae: Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) [feeds on the fruits] DGr02002, Icterus galbula (Baltimore Oriole) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during summer, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle) [feeds on the fruits, these shrubs were used 1.1% of the time as nest sites in North Dakota & they had average preference for this purpose] DGr2002 Hmn1996; Mimidae: Dumetella carolinensis (Catbird) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during spring & summer, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Toxostoma rufum (Brown Thrasher) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Odontophoridae: Colinus virginianus (Bobwhite Quail) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Paridae: Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Poecile atricapillus (Black-capped Chickadee) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Parulidae: Setophaga kirtlandii (Kirtland's Warbler) [these shrubs provided protective cover & they were located within 1 meter of the nest sites 30% of the time in Michigan] Bch1980, Setophaga ruticilla (American Redstart) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [fruits & buds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the NE USA & Virginia Alleghenies & Maine, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Phasianus colchicus (Ring-necked Pheasant) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Picidae: Colaptes auratus (Northern Flicker) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East & Eastern Prairies, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Red-headed Woodpecker) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East & Eastern Prairies, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Picoides villosus (Hairy Woodpecker) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East & Eastern Prairies, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Turdidae: Catharus fuscescens (Veery) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during summer, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food, 5.1% of bird stomachs contained fruits of unidentified serviceberries] MZN1951 DGr2002 Be1915b, Catharus guttatus (Hermit Thrush) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in E USA during summer, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these small trees for protective cover, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002 Dv2004, Catharus ustulatus (Swainson's Thrush) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, fruits comprise 10-25% of the diet in Prairies during summer, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food, 0.25% of bird stomachs contained fruits from unidentified serviceberries] MZN1951 DGr2002 Be1915b, Hylocichla mustelina (Wood Thrush) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits & uses these small trees for protective cover & nest sites] MZN1951 DGr2002, Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Turdus migratorius (American Robin) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food, fruits of an unidentified serviceberry were rarely eaten] MZN1951 DGr2002 Be1915; Tyrannidae: Sayornis phoebe (Eastern Phoebe) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Tyrannus tyrannus (Eastern Kingbird) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Vireonidae: Vireo olivaceus (Red-eyed Vireo) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002

Mammals

Castoridae: Castor canadensis (American Beaver) [wood & bark of these trees comprise 5-10% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Cervidae: Alces americanus (American Moose) [foliage & twigs of these trees comprise 2-5% of the diet in Isle Royale of Michigan] MZN1951, Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [twigs comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in New York during winter, foliage & twigs comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Pennsylvania] MZN1951; Cricetidae: Peromyscus leucopus (White-footed Mouse) [eats fruits and/or seeds] Hm1941, Peromyscus maniculatus (Deer Mouse) [eats fruits and/or seeds] Hm1941; Sciuridae: Sciurus niger (Fox Squirrel) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in Michigan during summer] MZN1951, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus (American Red Squirrel) [fruits comprise 5-10% of the diet in E USA during summer] MZN1951; Ursidae: Ursus americanus (American Black Bear) [feeds on fruits to a minor extent, fruits occur in the diet about 6% of the time in Ontario, fruits are a minor item of the diet in Quebec during the fall, feeds on the fruits in Minnesota] BP1980 ROA2013 MOC2008 NC1990; Vespertilionidae: Myotis septentrionalis (Northern Long-eared Bat) [these small trees were not used by maternal colonies for summer roost sites in central Appalachia] Jhn2009
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