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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Trifolium spp.
(Clover) [Fabaceae]
(observations are from Lewis, Schwartz, Martin et al., Cole & Batzli, Romain et al., Korschgen, and Whitaker)

Birds

Alaudidae: Eremophila alpestris (Horned Lark) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in eastern USA] MZN1951; Calcaridae: Calcarius pictus (Smith's Longspur) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Illinois during spring] MZN1951; Columbidae: Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove) [seeds of minor importance as a source of food] Lws1993; Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [leaves comprise 5-10% of the diet in the Northeast during winter, leaves comprise 5-10% of the diet in Maine during summer & fall] MZN1951, Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey) [leaves comprise 2-5% of the diet during summer & fall] MZN1951, Perdix perdix (Hungarian Partridge) [leaves comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Northern Plains during winter] MZN1951, Tympanuchus cupido (Greater Prairie Chicken) [leaves eaten during spring & summer & fall for 7 months of the year, seeds & foliage comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Northern Plains during summer & fall, these plants have average importance as a source of food in Missouri] Swz1945 MZN1951 Krs1962; Scolopacidae: Calidris melanotos (Pectoral Sandpiper) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the United States] MZN1951

Mammals
Cricetidae: Microtous ochrogaster (Prairie Vole) [feeds on foliage] CB1979 MZN1951, Microtus pennsylvanicus (Meadow Vole) [feeds on foliage] MZN1951, Microtus pinetorum (Woodland Vole) [feeds on stems & leaves] MZN1951; Leporidae: Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail) [foliage comprises 5-10% of the diet in Connecticut throughout the year] MZN1951; Procyonidae: Procyon lotor (Raccoon) [seeds & foliage comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Iowa] MZN1951; Sciuridae: Ictidomys tridecemlineatus (Thirteen-lined Ground Squirrel) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in the Prairie region during summer, leaves comprise 12% of the diet by volume & 28.1% by frequency in Indiana, flowerheads & seedheads comprise 3.6% of the diet by volume & 7.4% by frequency in Indiana] MZN1951 Wh1972, Marmota monax (Groundhog) [foliage comprises 10-25% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Ursidae: Ursus americanus (American Black Bear) [foliage & flowers & seeds found in scats 47% of the time in Ontario] ROA2013
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