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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Tilia americana
(American Basswood) [Tiliaceae]
(observations are from Hamilton, Martin et al., and Mu╠nzer)

Mammals

Cricetidae: Peromyscus leucopus (White-footed Mouse) [eats seeds] Hm1941, Peromyscus maniculatus (Deer Mouse) [eats seeds] Hm1941;
Erethizontidae: Erethizon dorsatum (North American Porcupine) [this tree comprises 2-5% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Sciuridae: Poliocitellus franklinii (Franklin's Ground Squirrel) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Northern Prairies] MZN1951; Vespertilionidae: Nycticeius humeralis (Evening Bat) [cavities and/or exfoliating bark of this tree provided 3% of the roost sites in Michigan] Mnz2008
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