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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Zea mays
(Corn) [Poaceae]
(observations are from Snyder, Lewis, Schwartz, Martin et al., Schorger, Ernst et al., Houtcooper, Whitaker, Hofmann, Korschgen, Bellrose, Havera, Anderson, Yeatter, DeVore et al., and Beal)

Birds

Alaudidae: Eremophila alpestris (Horned Lark) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in eastern USA during winter, spring, & summer] MZN1951; Anatidae: Aix sponsa (Wood Duck) [feeds on waste grains in Illinois & elsewhere, the seeds comprise 48% of the diet in Illinois] Blr1942 Hv1999 And1959, Anas acuta (Northern Pintail) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northeast, feeds on waste grains in Illinois & elsewhere, the seeds comprise 16% of the diet in Illinois] MZN1951 Blr1942 Hv1999 And1959, Anas americana (American Wigeon) [feeds on waste grains in Illinois & elsewhere, the seeds comprise 2% of the diet in Illinois] Blr1942 Hv1999 And1959, Anas clypeata (Northern Shoveler) [the seeds comprise 11% of the diet in Illinois] And1959, Anas crecca carolinensis (Green-winged Teal) [feeds on waste grains, the seeds comprise 2% of the diet in Illinois] Blr1942 And1959, Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet during winter in the Northeast, feeds on waste grains in Illinois & elsewhere, the seeds comprise 47% of the diet in Illinois] MZN1951 Blr1942 Hv1999 And1959, Anas rubripes (Black Duck) [feeds on waste grains, the seeds comprise 7% of the diet in Illinois] Blr1942 And1959, Anas strepera (Gadwall) [feeds on waste grains in Illinois] Hv1999, Aythya americana (Redhead) [feeds on waste grain in Illinois, the seeds comprise 5% of the diet in Illinois] Hv1999 And1959, Aythya collaris (Ring-necked Duck) [feeds on waste grain in Illinois & elsewhere, the seeds comprise 14% of the diet in Illinois] Blr1942 Hv1999 And1959, Branta canadensis (Canada Goose) [feeds on seedlings & waste grain in Illinois & elsewhere] Blr1942 Hv1999; Calcariidae: Calcarius lapponicus (Lapland Longspur) [feeds on the seeds] Dv2004; Cardinalidae: Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in NE USA & SE USA during summer & fall & winter, feeds on the seeds] MZN1951 Dv2004, Passerina caerulea (Blue Grosbeak) [seeds comprise 25-50% of the diet in the Prairie region during spring & summer] MZN1951, Pheucticus ludovicianus (Rose-breasted Grosbeak) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA & Northern Prairies during spring & summer & fall] MZN1951, Spiza americana (Dickcissel) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Prairie region] MZN1951; Certhiidae: Certhia americana (Brown Creeper) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the USA during winter] MZN1951; Columbidae: Ectopistes migratorius (Passenger Pigeon) [seeds were an important source of food] Sch1955, Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove) [seeds of major importance as a food source, seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in the Northeast throughout the year, seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in Prairies throughout the year] Lws1993 MZN1951; Corvidae: Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow) [seeds comprise 25-50% of the diet in eastern USA throughout the year, seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in the Prairie region throughout the year] MZN1951, Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in eastern USA throughout the year] MZN1951; Emberizidae: Chondestes grammacus (Lark Sparrow) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Prairie region] MZN1951, Junco hyemalis (Dark-eyed Junco) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951, Melospiza lincolnii (Lincoln Sparrow) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in NE USA during spring] MZN1951, Melospiza melodia (Song Sparrow) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951, Passerella iliaca (Fox Sparrow) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA] MZN1951, Pipilo erythrophthalmus (Eastern Towhee) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in NE USA throughout the year] MZN1951, Spizelloides arborea (American Tree Sparrow) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA & Eastern Prairies] MZN1951, Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during winter & spring] MZN1951, Zonotrichia leucophrys (White-crowned Sparrow) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Eastern Prairies] MZN1951, Zonotrichia querula (Harris Sparrow) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in Eastern Prairies during fall & winter & spring] MZN1951; Gruidae: Grus canadensis (Sandhill Crane) [seeds comprise 10-50% of the diet in western United States during fall, winter, & spring] MZN1951; Icteridae: Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in NE USA throughout the year, seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in the Prairie region throughout the year] MZN1951, Euphagus carolinus (Rusty Blackbird) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in NE USA & Canada & Prairie region during fall & winter & spring] MZN1951, Icterus galbula (Baltimore Oriole) [soft seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951, Molothrus ater (Brown-headed Cowbird) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in NE USA during summer & fall & winter, seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in SE USA during winter] MZN1951, Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle) [seeds & young sprouts comprise 25-55% of the diet in NE USA & the Prairie region throughout the year] MZN1951, Sturnella magna (Eastern Meadowlark) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in NE USA during fall & winter & spring, seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in Eastern Prairie region during winter & spring] MZN1951, Sturnella neglecta (Western Meadowlark) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in central & western USA during winter] MZN1951; Mimidae: Toxostoma rufum (Brown Thrasher) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA & Eastern Prairies during spring, summer, & fall] MZN1951; Paridae: Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during fall & winter] MZN1951, Poecile atricapillus (Black-capped Chickadee) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Passeridae: Passer domesticus (House Sparrow) [seeds comprise 25-50% of the diet in eastern USA & Prairie region throughout the year] MZN1951; Phasianidae: Colinus virginianus (Bobwhite Quail) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in the Northeast during fall & winter, seeds comprise 25-50% of the diet in the NE Prairies during fall & winter] MZN1951, Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in Pennsylvania & the Allegheny Mountains during winter, seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in Virginia during winter] MZN1951, Perdix perdix (Hungarian Partridge) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in the Northeast during fall, winter, & spring] MZN1951, Phasianus colchicus (Ring-necked Pheasant) [seeds comprise 25-50% of the diet in the Northeast throughout the year, seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in New York during winter & spring, feeds on the seeds] MZN1951 Dv2004, Tympanuchus cupido (Greater Prairie Chicken) [seeds are eaten intermittently for 10 months throughout the year, seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in the Northern Plains throughout the year, this plant has above average importance as a source of food in Missouri, seeds comprise 1.6% of the diet for juveniles in Illinois] Swz1945 MZN1951 Krs1962 Yt1943; Picidae: Colaptes auratus (Northern Flicker) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East & Eastern Prairies] MZN1951, Melanerpes carolinus (Red-bellied Woodpecker) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in the East during fall, winter, & spring] MZN1951, Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Red-headed Woodpecker) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in the East during fall & winter] MZN1951, Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East & Eastern Prairies, feeds on the seeds] MZN1951 Dv2004, Picoides villosus (Hairy Woodpecker) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East & Eastern Prairies] MZN1951; Psittacidae: Conuropsis carolinensis   (Carolina Parakeet) [seeds of major importance as a source of food] Snd2004, Myiopsitta monachus (Monk Parakeet) [feeds on the seeds] Dv2004; Sittidae: Sitta canadensis (Red-breasted Nuthatch) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA] MZN1951, Sitta carolinensis (White-breasted Nuthatch) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in E USA and eastern Prairies during winter & spring] MZN1951; Sturnidae: Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the seeds] MZN1951 Dv2004; Turdidae: Turdus migratorius (American Robin) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA & Eastern Prairies, the seeds are eaten occasionally] MZN1951 Be1915

Mammals
Canidae: Urocyon cineroargenteus (Gray Fox) [immature seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA & SE USA] MZN1951, Vulpes vulpes fulvus (American Red Fox) [immature seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA & Massachusetts] MZN1951; Castoridae: Castor canadensis (American Beaver) [this plant is a source of food in Missouri] MZN1951; Cervidae: Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in Missouri & the North Carolina mountains during summer & fall & winter] MZN1951; Cricetidae: Microtus ochrogaster (Prairie Vole) [feeds on this plant] MZN1951, Microtus pennsylvanicus (Meadow Vole) [feeds on this plant] MZN1951, Microtus pinetorum (Woodland Vole) [feeds on this plant] MZN1951, Ondatra zibethicus (Muskrat) [this plant comprises 0.5-5% of the diet in NE USA & Iowa] MZN1951, Peromyscus leucopus (White-footed Mouse) [seeds comprise 1.6% of the diet by volume, seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in E USA during fall] Wh1966 MZN1951, Peromyscus maniculatus (Deer Mouse) [large amounts of seeds are consumed, seeds comprise 5.6% of the diet by volume] Ht1978 Wh1966; Didelphidae: Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in Missouri during winter] MZN1951; Geomyidae: Geomys bursarius (Plains Pocket Gopher) [feeds on the seeds & other parts of this plant] MZN1951; Leporidae: Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail) [seedlings comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Ohio] MZN1951; Muridae: Mus musculus (House Mouse) [large amounts of seeds are consumed, seeds comprise 13.0% of the diet by volume] Ht1978 Wh1966; Procyonidae: Procyon lotor (Raccoon) [seeds comprise 25-50% of the diet in NE USA & Iowa during fall & winter] MZN1951; Sciuridae: Poliocitellus franklinii  (Franklin's Ground Squirrel) [young plants in fields are eaten in Illinois] Hof1998, Sciurus niger (Fox Squirrel) [immature seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in NE USA & Ohio & Michigan throughout the year] MZN1951, Tamias striatus (Eastern Chipmunk) [immature seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during summer & fall] MZN1951

Turtles
Emydidae: Chrysemys picta (Painted Turtle) [probably feeds on seeds] EBL1994; Trionychidae: Apalone spinifera (Spiny Softshell) [probably feeds on seeds] EBL1994
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