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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Populus deltoides
(Eastern Cottonwood) [Salicaceae]
(observations are from DeGraaf, Carter, Veilleux et al., Sparks et al., C. Martin et al., McGuire et al., Swier, Mu╠nzer,  Zimmerman, Homan et al., Dijak et al., Moorman & Chapman, Jackson, and DeVore et al.)

Birds

Accipitridae: Buteo lineatus (Red-shouldered Hawk) [2.9% of the time large specimens of this tree were selected for nest sites in Missouri, large specimens of this tree were selected 8.3% of the time in Georgia] DTP1990 MC1996; Fringillidae: Coccothraustes vespertinus (Evening Grosbeak) [feeds on buds] DGr2002, Haemorhous purpureus (Purple Finch) [feeds on buds] DGr2002, Loxia leucoptera (White-winged Crossbill) [feeds on the seeds] Dv2004; Icteridae: Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle) [this tree was used 0.1% of the time as a nest site in North Dakota and it had far below-average preference for this purpose] Hmn1996; Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [feeds on buds & catkins as preferred sources of food] DGr2002; Picidae: Melanerpes carolinus (Red-bellied Woodpecker) [this tree was selected 7.3% of the time for nest sites in cavities in Kansas] Jck1976, Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Red-headed Woodpecker) [this tree was selected 30% of the time for nest sites in cavities in Kansas] Jck1976, Sphyrapicus varius (Yellow-bellied Sapsucker) [feeds on tree sap & uses this tree for protective cover & cavities for nest sites] DGr2002

Mammals
Vespertilionidae: 
Corynorhinus rafinesquii (Rafinesque's Big-eared Bat) [cavities of this tree are used for roosting sites in Mississippi] Mrt2011, Eptesicus fuscus (Big Brown Bat) [this tree was used for roost sites in eastern South Dakota] Sw2003, Lasionycteris noctivagans (Silver-haired Bat) [this tree was used for roost sites during migration, this tree was selected for roost sites 100% of the time in eastern South Dakota] McG2012 Sw2003, Lasiurus cinereus (Hoary Bat) [the foliage of this tree was used by a juvenile bat for summer roost sites 100% of the time in Indiana] SRE2005, Myotis lucifugus (Little Brown Bat) [this tree was used for roost sites in eastern South Dakota] Sw2003, Myotis septentrionalis (Northern Long-eared Bat) [this tree was selected for roost sites 100% of the time in eastern South Dakota, cavities and/or exfoliating bark were used for roost sites 10.5% of the time in Missouri] Sw2003 Zm2015, Myotis sodalis (Indiana Bat) [dead or dying Eastern Cottonwood trees (snags) provide 4.3% of roost sites for female bats in southern Illinois] Crt2003, Nycticeius humeralis (Evening Bat) [cavities and/or exfoliating bark of this tree provided 6% of the roost sites in Michigan] Mnz2008, Perimyotis subflavus (Tricolored Bat) [mostly dead or live foliage of this tree was selected 5.4% of the time as a summer roost site by maternal colonies in Indiana & this tree has above-average preference for this purpose] VWV2003
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