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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Lemna spp.
(Duckweed) [Lemnaceae]
(observations are from Martin et al., Ernst et al., Lagler, Pearse, Forbes, Bellrose, and Havera)

Birds

Anatidae:
Aix sponsa (Wood Duck) [these plants comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Northeast during fall & winter, these plants comprise 5-10% of the diet in New York during the spring, ducklings feed on these plants] MZN1951 Blr1942, Anas acuta (Northern Pintail) [feeds on these plants in Illinois] Hv1999, Anas americana (American Wigeon) [these plants comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northeast, feeds on these plants in Illinois] MZN1951 Hv1999, Anas clypeata (Northern Shoveler) [these plants comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Southeast during winter] MZN1951, Anas crecca carolinensis (Green-winged Teal) [these plants comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Northeast, feeds on these plants] MZN1951 Blr1942, Anas discors (Blue-winged Teal) [these plants comprise 10-25% of the diet in the Northeast during summer & fall, feeds on these plants] MZN1951 Blr1942, Anas platyrhynchos  (Mallard) [these plants comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northeast, feeds on these plants in Illinois & elsewhere] MZN1951 Blr1942 Hv1999,Anas strepera (Gadwall) [feeds on these plants in Illinois] Hv1999, Aythya affinis (Lesser Scaup) [feeds on these plants in Illinois] Hv1999, Aythya americana (Redhead) [feeds on these plants in Illinois & elsewhere] Blr1942 Hv1999, Aythya collaris  (Ring-necked Duck) [feeds on these plants in Illinois & elsewhere] Blr1942 Hv1999, Bucephala albeola (Bufflehead) [these plants comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northeast] MZN1951, Cygnus buccinator (Trumpeter Swan) [feeds on these plants] Blr1942, Oxyura jamaicensis (Ruddy Duck) [feeds on these plants in Illinois] Hv1999; Laridae: Leucophaeus pipixcan (Franklin's Gull) [this plant comprises 0.5-2% of the diet in the United States] MZN1951; Rallidae: Fulica americana (Common Coot) [these plants comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Northeast during summer, fall, & winter] MZN1951, Porzana carolina (Sora) [these plants comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northeast] MZN1951

Turtles
Chelydridae: Chelydra serpentina (Snapping Turtle) [feeds on these plants] EBL1994 Lg1943; Emydidae: Chrysemys picta (Painted Turtle) [feeds on these plants] EBL1994, Emydoidea blandingii (Blanding's Turtle) [feeds on these plants] EBL1994, Graptemys ouachitensis (Ouachita Map Turtle) [feeds on these plants] EBL1994, Trachemys scripta (Slider) [feeds on these plants] EBL1994; Kinosternidae: Kinosternon flavescens (Yellow Mud Turtle)

Fishes
Catostomidae: Ictiobus bubalus (Smallmouth Buffalo) [feeds on these plants] Frb1888, Ictiobus cyprinellus (Bigmouth Buffalo) [feeds on these plants] Frb1888, Ictiobus niger (Black Buffalo) [feeds on these plants] Frb1888, Moxostoma carinatum (River Redhorse) [feeds on these plants] Frb1888; Centrarchidae: Lepomis gibbosus (Pumpkinseed) [these plants comprise 7.5% of the diet] Prs1918; Clupeidae: Dorosoma cepedianum (American Gizzard Shad) [feeds on these plants] Frb1888; Cyprinidae: Cyprinus carpio (Common Carp) [these plants comprise 7% of the diet] Prs1918, Notemigonus crysoleucas (Golden Shiner) [these plants comprise 15% of the diet] Prs1918; Ictaluridae: Ameiurus melas (Black Bullhead) [these plants comprise 1–3% of the diet] Prs1918, Ameiurus natalis (Yellow Bullhead) [feeds on these plants] Frb1888, Ictalurus punctatus (Channel Catfish) [feeds on these plants] Frb1888, Noturus gyrinus (Tadpole Cat) [these plants comprise 1.4% of the diet] Prs1918; Umbridae: Umbra limi (Central Mudminnow) [feeds on these plants] Frb1888
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