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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Celtis spp.
(Hackberry, Sugarberry) [Ulmaceae]
(observations are from Snyder, Martin et al., Ernst et al., and Beal)

Birds

Bombycillidae: Bombycilla cedrorum (Cedar Waxwing) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during winter] MZN1951; Corvidae: Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Prairie region] MZN1951; Mimidae: Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in SE USA during winter] MZN1951; Phasianidae: Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Missouri] MZN1951; Picidae: Colaptes auratus (Northern Flicker) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in the East & Eastern Prairies during winter] MZN1951, Sphyrapicus varius (Yellow-bellied Sapsucker) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East] MZN1951; Psittacidae: Conuropsis carolinensis (Carolina Parakeet) [fruits of moderate importance as a source of food] Snd2004; Sturnidae: Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Turdidae: Catharus guttatus (Hermit Thrush) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA] MZN1951, Catharus ustulatus (Swainson's Thrush) [fruits comprise 10-25% of the diet in Prairies during spring] MZN1951, Turdus migratorius (American Robin) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, fruits comprise 10-25% of the diet in Eastern Prairies during winter & spring, fruits of unidentified hackberries were eaten occasionally] MZN1951 Be1915; Tyrannidae: Sayornis phoebe (Eastern Phoebe) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in eastern USA] MZN1951

Mammals
Didelphidae:
Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Missouri] MZN1951; Procyonidae: Procyon lotor (Raccoon) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Sciuridae: Glaucomys volans (Southern Flying Squirrel) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during fall & winter] MZN1951, Sciurus niger (Fox Squirrel) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Michigan] MZN1951

Turtles
Emydidae: Trachemys scripta (Slider) [feeds on fallen leaves] EBL1994
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