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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Liriodendron tulipifera
(Tulip Tree) [Magnoliaceae]
(observations are from Hamilton, Martin et al., DeGraaf, Johnson et al., and Veilleux et al.)

Birds
Cardinalidae:
Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during the winter, the seeds are a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Fringillidae: Coccothraustes vespertinus (Evening Grosbeak) [feeds on seeds] DGr2002, Haemorhous purpureus (Purple Finch) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in E USA during fall & winter, the seeds are a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Pinicola enucleator (Pine Grosbeak) [feeds on seeds] DGr2002, Spinus tristis (American Goldfinch) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA, feeds on seeds] MZN1951 DGr2002; Icteridae: Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) [feeds on seeds] DGr2002; Odontophoridae: Colinus virginianus (Bobwhite Quail) [feeds on seeds] DGr2002; Paridae: Poecile carolinensis (Carolina Chickadee) [feeds on seeds] DGr2002; Picidae: Sphyrapicus varius (Yellow-bellied Sapsucker) [drills holes in wood & sucks sap in E USA & elsewhere] MZN1951 DGr2002; Trochilidae: Archilochus colubris (Ruby-throated Hummingbird) [the flower nectar is a preferred source of food] DGr2002

Mammals

Cricetidae: Peromyscus leucopus (White-footed Mouse) [eats the seeds, seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in E USA during fall] Hm1941 MZN1951, Peromyscus maniculatus (Deer Mouse) [eats the seeds] Hm1941;
Sciuridae: Sciurus carolinensis (Eastern Gray Squirrel) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA] MZN1951, Sciurus niger (Fox Squirrel) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Ohio] MZN1951, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus (American Red Squirrel) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in E USA during fall] MZN1951; Vespertilionidae: Myotis septentrionalis (Northern Long-eared Bat) [Tulip Tree provides 0–2.3% of the roost trees for maternal colonies in central Appalachia] Jhn2009, Perimyotis subflavus (Tricolored Bat) [mostly dead or live foliage of this tree was selected 2.7% of the time as a summer roost site by maternal colonies in Indiana & this tree has average preference for this purpose] VWV2003
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