Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:


Amaranthus retroflexus
(Rough Pigweed) [Amaranthaceae]
(observations are from Lewis, Havera, and Myers et al.)


Anatidae: Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard) [feeds on seeds in Illinois] Hv1999; Columbidae: Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove) [seeds of major importance as a source of food] Lws1993

Cervidae: Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [2% of deer droppings contained viable seeds of this plant in New York] Myr2004