Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:


Symphyotrichum spp.
(Aster) [Asteraceae]
(observations are from Martin et al., Buech, and Schneider et al.; the scientific name, Aster, is a synonym of these plants)


Spizelloides arborea (American Tree Sparrow) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Parulidae: Setophaga kirtlandii (Kirtland's Warbler) [these plants (excluding Symphyotrichum laeve) provided protective cover & they were located within 1 meter of the nest sites 30% of the time in Michigan] Bch1980; Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [leaves & seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Virginia Alleghenies during winter] MZN1951

Cervus canadensis (Elk) [foliage provides 1.9% of the diet] SMA2006