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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Polystichum acrostichoides
(Christmas Fern) [Dryopteridaceae]
(observations are from Sotala & Kirkpatrick and Martin et al.)

Mammals

Cervidae: Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [this plant has moderate importance as a food source during winter & spring, fronds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the North Carolina mountains during winter] SK1973 MZN1951
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