Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:


Polystichum acrostichoides
(Christmas Fern) [Dryopteridaceae]
(observations are from Sotala & Kirkpatrick, Martin et al., Heckscher, and Schneider et al.)

Turdidae: Catharus fuscescens (Veery) [
this fern was selected to provide support 5% of the time for the nests of this bird in Delaware] Hck2004


Cervidae: Cervus canadensis (Elk) [the foliage of this fern provides 6.5% of the diet, especially during autumn & winter] SMA2006, Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [this plant has moderate importance as a food source during winter & spring, fronds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the North Carolina mountains during winter] SK1973 MZN1951