Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:


Rhamnus cathartica
(Common Buckthorn) [Rhamnaceae]
(observations are from Bielefeldt & Rosenfeld and Myers et al.)


Parulidae: Setophaga citrina (Hooded Warbler) [this shrub was used as a support for 20.8% of all nests in Wisconsin] BfRf2001

Cervidae: Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [2% of deer droppings contained viable seeds of this shrub in New York] Myr2004