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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Cornus racemosa
(Gray Dogwood) [Cornaceae]
(observations are from Hamilton, Martin et al., Havera, and DeGraaf)

Birds
Anatidae: Aix sponsa (Wood Duck) [feeds on fruits & seeds in Illinois] Hv1999, Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard) [feeds on fruits in Illinois] Hv1999; Bombycillidae: Bombycilla cedrorum (Cedar Waxwing) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Cardinalidae: Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Fringillidae: Pinicola enucleator (Pine Grosbeak) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Mimidae: Dumetella carolinensis (Gray Catbird) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food & uses this shrub for protective cover & preferred site for nests] DGr2002; Odontophoridae: Colinus virginianus (Bobwhite Quail) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [feeds on the fruits & buds as preferred sources of food] DGr2002, Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Phasianus colchicus (Ring-necked Pheasant) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Tympanuchus cupido (Greater Prairie Chicken) [fruits & buds comprise 2-5% of the diet in SE Illinois during summer] MZN1951; Picidae: Colaptes auratus (Northern Flicker) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Red-headed Woodpecker) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Scolopacidae: Scolopax minor (American Woodcock) [uses this shrub for protective cover] DGr2002; Turdidae: Catharus ustulatus (Swainson's Thrush) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of foood] DGr2002, Turdus migratorius (American Robin) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Tyrannidae: Tyrannus tyrannus (Eastern Kingbird) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002

Mammals

Cricetidae: Peromyscus leucopus (White-footed Mouse) [eats fruits and/or seeds] Hm1941, Peromyscus maniculatus (Deer Mouse) [eats fruits and/or seeds] Hm1941
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