Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:


Viola spp.
(Violet) [Violaceae]
(observations are from Lewis, Martin et al., Ernst et al., Wrazen & Svendsen, and Buech)


Columbidae: Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove) [seeds of minor importance as a source of food,
seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northeast] Lws1993 MZN1951; Emberizidae: Junco hyemalis (Dark-eyed Junco) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during summer & fall] MZN1951; Parulidae: Setophaga kirtlandii (Kirtland's Warbler) [these plants provided protective cover & they were located within 1 meter of the nest sites 30% of the time in Michigan] Bch1980; Phasianidae: Tympanuchus cupido (Greater Prairie Chicken) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Wisconsin during the summer] MZN1951; Scolopacidae: Scolopax minor (American Woodcock) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East] MZN1951

Microtus pinetorum (Woodland Vole) [feeds on root crown & rhizomes] MZN1951, Peromyscus leucopus (White-footed Mouse) [root crown & rhizomes comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA] MZN1951; Sciuridae: Tamias striatus (Eastern Chipmunk) [feeds on leaves & stems] WS1978

Emydidae: Glyptemys insculpta (Wood Turtle) [feeds on these plants] EBL1994