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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Rhamnus alnifolia
(Alder-leaved Buckthorn) [Rhamnaceae]
(this observation is from Romain et al.)

Mammals

Ursidae: Ursus americanus (American Black Bear) [leaves and/or seeds occur in the diet about 13% of the time in Ontario] ROA2013
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