____________


Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

____________


Cephalanthus occidentalis
(Buttonbush) [Rubiaceae]
(observations are from Schwartz, Martin et al., Bellrose, Havera, and DeGraaf)

Birds

Anatidae: Aix sponsa (Wood Duck) [feeds on seeds in Illinois & elsewhere, feeds on seeds & uses this shrub for protective cover] Blr1942 Hv1999 DGr2002, Anas acuta (Northern Pintail) [feeds on seeds in Illinois] Hv1999, Anas americana (American Wigeon) [feeds on seeds in Illinois & elsewhere, feeds on seeds & uses this shrub for protective cover] Blr1942 Hv1999 DGr2002, Anas clypeata (Northern Shoveler) [feeds on seeds] Blr1942, Anas crecca carolinensis (Green-winged Teal) [feeds on seeds & uses this shrub for protective cover] Blr1942 DGr2002, Anas discors (Blue-winged Teal) [feeds on seeds in Illinois, feeds on seeds & uses this shrub for protective cover] Hv1999 DGr2002, Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard) [seeds & seedheads comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northeast, feeds on seeds in Illinois & elsewhere, feeds on seeds & uses this shrub for protective cover] MZN1951 Blr1942 Hv1999 DGr2002, Anas rubripes (Black Duck) [feeds on seeds] Blr1942,
Anas strepera (Gadwall) [seeds & seedheads comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Southeast during winter, feeds on seeds in Illinois & elsewhere, feeds on seeds & uses this shrub for protective cover] MZN1951 Blr1942 Hv1999 DGr2002, Aythya collaris (Ring-necked Duck) [feeds on seeds] Blr1942, Branta canadensis (Canada Goose) [feeds on seeds in Illinois] Hv1999; Icteridae: Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Black) [uses this shrub for protective cover & nesting habitat] DGr2002, Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle) [uses this shrub for protective cover & nesting habitat] DGr2002; Phasianidae: Tympanuchus cupido (Greater Prairie Chicken) [seed capsules eaten during winter for 1 month] Swz1945; Rallidae: Rallus limicola (Virginia Rail) [seeds comprise 0.5–2% of the diet in the Northeast] MZN1951; Trochilidae: Archilochus colubris (Ruby-throated Hummingbird) [feeds on flower nectar] DGr2002
________________________________________________________________________