____________


Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

____________


Aralia spp.
(Spikenard) [Araliaceae]
(observations are from Martin et al.)

Birds

Emberizidae: Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Turdidae: Catharus ustulatus (Swainson's Thrush) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951, Hylocichla mustelina (Wood Thrush) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951

Mammals
Sciuridae:
Tamias striatus (Eastern Chipmunk) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951
________________________________________________________________________