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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Quercus velutina
(Black Oak) [Fagaceae]
(observations are from Schorger, Haugen, and Perry & Thill)

Birds

Columbidae: Ectopistes migratorius (Passenger Pigeon) [acorns of this & other oak species were an important source of food] Sch1955

Mammals
Leporidae: Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail) [the bark & twigs of saplings are often used as a source of food in Michigan during winter] Hgn1942; Vespertilionidae: Nycticeius humeralis (Evening Bat) [cavities or loose bark of this tree provided 6% of diurnal roost sites for male bats in Arkansas & this tree had above-average preference for this purpose] PT2008
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