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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Persicaria lapathifolia
(Pale Smartweed) [Polygonaceae]
(observations are from Havera, Anderson, Myers et al., and Beal)

Birds

Anatidae: Anas acuta (Northern Pintail) [feeds on seeds in Illinois, the seeds comprise 1% of the diet in Illinois] Hv1999 And1959, Anas americana (American Wigeon) [feeds on seeds in Illinois] Hv1999, Anas clypeata (Northern Shoveler) [the seeds comprise less than 1% of the diet in Illinois] And1959, Anas crecca carolinensis (Green-winged Teal) [feeds on seeds in Illinois, the seeds comprise 1% of the diet in Illinois] Hv1999 And1959, Anas discors (Blue-winged Teal) [feeds on seeds in Illinois, the seeds comprise 1% of the diet in Illinois] Hv1999 And1959, Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard) [feeds on seeds in Illinois, the seeds comprise less than 1% of the diet in Illinois] Hv1999 And1959, Aythya affinis (Lesser Scaup) [feeds on seeds in Illinois] Hv1999, Aythya americana (Redhead) [feeds on seeds in Illinois, the seeds comprise 1% of the diet in Illinois] Hv1999 And1959, Aythya collaris (Ring-necked Duck) [the seeds comprise less than 1% of the diet in Illinois] And1959, Branta canadensis (Canada Goose) [feeds on seeds in Illinois] Hv1999; Turdidae: Turdus migratorius (American Robin) [the seeds are eaten rarely] Be1915

Mammals
Cervidae: Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [2% of deer droppings contained viable seeds of this plant in New York] Myr2004
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