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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Solidago canadensis
(Canada Goldenrod) [Asteraceae]
(observations are from Lindroth & Batzli, Cole & Batzli, Blackmore, Best, and Myers et al.; these observations include Solidago altissima)

Birds
Emberizidae: Spizella pusilla (Field Sparrow) [1.6% of nests were supported by this plant in Illinois] Bst1978

Mammals

Bovidae: Capra aegagrus hircus (Domesticated Goat) [this plant is eaten] Blk1998; Cervidae: Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [1% of deer droppings contained viable seeds of this plant in New York] Myr2004; Cricetidae: Microtous ochrogaster (Prairie Vole) [feeds on seeds and/or foliage] CB1979, Microtus pennsylvanicus (Meadow Vole) [shoots of this plant comprise 6.7% of the diet, this plant is highly preferred as a food source] LB1984
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