Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:


Thuja occidentalis
(Eastern White Cedar ) [Cupressaceae]
(observations are from Martin et al., Bennetts, DeGraaf, and Beal; this tree is also referred to as Northern White Cedar and Arborvitae)

Fringillidae: Acanthis flammea (Common Redpoll) [feeds on seeds] DGr2002, Haemorhous mexicanus (House Finch) [uses this small tree for protective cover & nesting habitat] DGr2002, Spinus pinus (Pine Siskin) [feeds on seeds as a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Phasianidae:
Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [feeds on seeds in Wisconsin & Ontario during fall & winter] Bnn1900;Turdidae: Catharus ustulatus (Swainson's Thrush) [0.25% of bird stomachs contained seeds from this small tree] Be1915b, Turdus migratorius (American Robin) [feeds on seeds & uses this small tree for protective cover & nesting habitat] DGr2002


Cervidae: Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [foliage & twigs comprise 2-5% of the diet in Maine, foliage & twigs comprise 10-25% of the diet in Wisconsin & Minnesota during winter & spring] MZN1951