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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Persicaria pensylvanica
(Pennsylvania Smartweed) [Polygonaceae]
(observations are from Lewis, Schwartz, Schorger, Korschgen, and Havera)

Birds

Anatidae: Anas acuta (Northern Pintail) [feeds on seeds in Illinois] Hv1999, Anas crecca carolinensis (Green-winged Teal) [feeds on seeds in Illinois] Hv1999, Anas discors (Blue-winged Teal) [feeds on seeds in Illinois] Hv1999, Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard) [feeds on seeds in Illinois] Hv1999, Anas strepera (Gadwall) [feeds on seeds in Illinois] Hv1999, Aythya affinis (Lesser Scaup) [feeds on seeds in Illinois] Hv1999, Aythya americana (Redhead) [feeds on seeds in Illinois] Hv1999, Branta canadensis (Canada Goose) [feeds on seeds in Illinois] Hv1999; Columbidae: Ectopistes migratorius (Passenger Pigeon) [seeds rarely used as food] Sch1955, Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove) [seeds of moderate importance as a source of food] Lws1993; Phasianidae: Tympanuchus cupido (Greater Prairie Chicken) [seeds eaten during fall, winter, & spring for 7 months of the year, this plant has below average importance as a source of food in Missouri] Swz1945 Krs1962
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