____________


Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

____________


Gaultheria procumbens
(Wintergreen) [Ericaceae]
(observations are from Hamilton, Martin et al., Schorger, Haugen, Bennetts, and Buech; other common names of this plant are Checkerberry and Teaberry)

Birds
Columbidae: 
Ectopistes migratorius (Passenger Pigeon) [fruits occasionally used as food] Sch1955; Parulidae: Setophaga kirtlandii (Kirtland's Warbler) [this low creeping woody plant provided protective cover & it was located within 1 meter of the nest sites 10% of the time in Michigan] Bch1980; Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [fruits & buds & leaves comprise 0.5-5% of the diet in the NE USA & Virginia Alleghenies & Pennsylvania during fall & winter, fruits & buds & leaves comprise 2-5% of the diet in Maine throughout the year, feeds on fruits in Wisconsin & Ontario during fall & winter] MZN1951 Bnn1900

Mammals

Cervidae: Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [foliage & woody stems comprise 5-10% of the diet in Pennsylvania & Wisconsin & Minnesota during fall & winter & spring] MZN1951; Cricetidae: Peromyscus leucopus (White-footed Mouse) [eats fruits and/or seeds] Hm1941, Peromyscus maniculatus (Deer Mouse) [eats fruits and/or seeds] Hm1941; Leporidae: Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail) [this low woody plant is rarely used as a source of food in Michigan during winter] Hgn1942
________________________________________________________________________