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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Hieracium spp.
(Hawkweed) [Asteraceae]
(observations are from Martin et al. and Romain et al.)

Birds

Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [leaves & seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Maine] MZN1951

Mammals
Ursidae: Ursus americanus (American Black Bear) [foliage & flowers & seeds found in scats 22% of the time in Ontario] ROA2013
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