Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:


Hieracium spp.
(Hawkweed) [Asteraceae]
(observations are from Martin et al., Romain et al., and Buech)


Setophaga kirtlandii (Kirtland's Warbler) [these plants provided protective cover & they were located within 1 meter of the nest sites 10% of the time in Michigan] Bch1980; Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [leaves & seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Maine] MZN1951

Ursidae: Ursus americanus (American Black Bear) [foliage & flowers & seeds found in scats 22% of the time in Ontario] ROA2013