Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:


Hieracium spp.
(Hawkweed) [Asteraceae]
(observations are from Martin et al. and Romain et al.)


Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [leaves & seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Maine] MZN1951

Ursidae: Ursus americanus (American Black Bear) [foliage & flowers & seeds found in scats 22% of the time in Ontario] ROA2013