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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Liquidambar styraciflua
(Sweet Gum) [Hamamelidaceae]
(observations are from Lewis, Martin et al., Bellrose, DeGraaf, Mager & Nelson, Carter, C. Martin et al., Lucas, Clement, Belthoff & Ritchison, Dijak et al., Moorman & Chapman, and DeVore et al.)

Birds

Accipitridae: Buteo lineatus (Red-shouldered Hawk) [8.8% of the time large specimens of this tree were selected for nest sites in Missouri, large specimens of this tree were selected for nest sites 16.7% of the time in Georgia] DTP1990 MC1996; Anatidae: Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard) [feeds on seeds] Blr1942 DGr2002; Cardinalidae: Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal) [the seeds are preferred as a source of food] DGr2002; Columbidae: Columba livia (Rock Pigeon) [the seeds are preferred as a source of food] DGr2002, Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove) [seeds of major importance as a source of food, the seeds are preferred as a source of food] Lws1993 DGr2002; Emberizidae: Junco hyemalis (Dark-eyed Junco) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, the seeds are preferred as a source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Pipilo erythrophthalmus (Eastern Towhee) [feeds on seeds] DGr2002, Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow) [the seeds are preferred as a source of food] DGr2002, Zonotrichia leucophrys (White-crowned Sparrow) [feeds on seeds] DGr2002; Fringillidae: Acanthis flammea (Common Redpoll) [the seeds are preferred as a source of food, feeds on the seeds] DGr2002 Dv2004, Coccothraustes vespertinus (Evening Grosbeak) [the seeds are preferred as a source of food] DGr2002, Haemorhous purpureus (Purple Finch) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in E USA during fall, the seeds are preferred as a source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Spinus pinus (Pine Siskin) [the seeds are preferred as a source of food] DGr2002, Spinus tristis (American Goldfinch) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in E USA during winter, the seeds are preferred as a source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Icteridae: Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) [feeds on seeds] DGr2002; Odontophoridae: Colinus virginianus (Bobwhite Quail) [the seeds are preferred as a source of food] DGr2002; Paridae: Poecile atricapillus (Black-capped Chickadee) [feeds on seeds] DGr2002, Poecile carolinensis (Carolina Chickadee) [feeds on seeds] DGr2002; Phasianidae: Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey) [the seeds are preferred as a source of food] DGr2002; Picidae: Sphyrapicus varius (Yellow-bellied Sapsucker) [feeds on seeds] DGr2002; Strigidae: Megascops asio (Eastern Screech Owl) [this tree provided 4.6% of the roost sites for young owls in Kentucky & it had average preference for this purpose] BR1990; Sturnidae: Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling) [the seeds are a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Troglodytidae: Thryothorus ludovicianus (Carolina Wren) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA, feeds on seeds] MZN1951 DGr2002

Mammals
Sciuridae:
Sciurus carolinensis (Eastern Gray Squirrel) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in E USA during fall] MZN1951, Tamias striatus (Eastern Chipmunk) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Vespertilionidae: Corynorhinus rafinesquii (Rafinesque's Big-eared Bat) [cavities of this tree are used for roosting sites in Mississippi, used cavities of this tree for roost sites 2.3% of the time in South Carolina, cavities of this tree were used for roost sites 1.8% of the time in Georgia] Mrt2011 Lcs2009 Clm2011, Lasiurus borealis (Eastern Red Bat) [large sweet gum trees provide 19.4% of summer roost trees in an urban environment of Illinois during the summer with above-average preference] MN2001, Myotis septentrionalis (Northern Long-eared Bat) [dead or dying Sweet Gum trees (snags) & cavities of live Sweet Gum trees provide 5.3% of roost sites in southern Illinois] Crt2003
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