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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Sambucus canadensis
(Common Elderberry) [Caprifoliaceae]
(observations are from Schwartz, Martin et al., Schorger, Malmborg & Wilson, Blackmore, Mosnier et al., and DeGraaf; Sambucus nigra canadensis is a scientific synonym of this shrub)

Birds

Bombycillidae: Bombycilla cedrorum (Cedar Waxwing) [the fruits are a preferred source of food & uses this shrub for protective cover] DGr2002; Cardinalidae: Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal) [the fruits are a preferred source of food & uses this shrub for protective cover] DGr2002, Passerina cyanea (Indigo Bunting) [feeds on fruits & uses this shrub for protective cover] DGr2002, Pheucticus ludovicianus (Rose-breasted Grosbeak) [the fruits are a preferred source of food & uses this shrub for protective cover] DGr2002; Columbidae: Ectopistes migratorius (Passenger Pigeon) [fruits often used as a source of food] Sch1955, Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002; Corvidae: Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay) [the fruits are preferred as a source of food] DGr2002; Emberizidae: Melospiza melodia (Song Sparrow) [feeds on fruits & uses this shrub for protective cover] DGr2002, Pipilo erythrophthalmus (Eastern Towhee) [the fruits are a preferred source of food & uses this shrub for protective cover] DGr2002, Spizella passerina (Chipping Sparrow) [feeds on fruits & uses this shrub for protective cover] DGr2002, Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow) [the fruits are a preferred source of food & uses this shrub for protective cover] DGr2002; Fringillidae: Spinus tristis  (American Goldfinch) [uses this shrub for protective cover & nesting habitat] DGr2002; Icteridae: Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle) [feeds on fruits & uses this shrub for protective cover] DGr2002; Mimidae: Dumetella carolinensis (Catbird) [the fruits of this woody shrub comprised 0-82% of the total diet in fruits in Illinois, the fruits are a preferred source of food & uses this shrub for protective cover & nesting habitat] MW1988 DGr2002, Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird) [the fruits are a preferred source of food & uses this shrub for protective cover & nesting habitat] DGr2002, Toxostoma rufum (Brown Thrasher) [the fruits are a preferred source of food & uses this shrub for protective cover] DGr2002; Parulidae: Icteria virens (Yellow-breasted Chat) [the fruits are a preferred source of food & uses this shrub for protective cover] DGr2002, Setophaga petechia (Yellow Warbler) [uses this shrub for protective cover & nesting habitat] DGr2002; Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [feeds on fruits of this shrub in Wisconsin & Ontario during fall & winter] Bnn1900, Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey) [feeds on fruits & uses this shrub for protective cover] DGr2002, Phasianus colchicus (Ring-necked Pheasant) [feeds on fruits & uses this shrub for protective cover] DGr2002, Tympanuchus cupido (Greater Prairie Chicken) [fruits eaten during fall for 1 month] Swz1945; Picidae: Colaptes auratus (Northern Flicker) [feeds on fruits & uses this shrub for protective cover] DGr2002, Melanerpes carolinus (Red-bellied Woodpecker) [the fruits are a preferred source of food & uses this shrub for protective cover] DGr2002, Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Red-headed Woodpecker) [the fruits are a preferred source of food & uses this shrub for protective cover] DGr2002, Sphyrapicus varius (Yellow-bellied Sapsucker) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002; Sturnidae: Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling) [the fruits are a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Turdidae: Catharus fuscescens (Veery) [the fruits are a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Catharus guttatus (Hermit Thrush) [feeds on fruits & uses this shrub for protective cover] DGr2002, Catharus minimus (Gray-cheeked Thrush) [feeds on fruits & uses this shrub for protective cover] DGr2002, Catharus ustulatus (Swainson's Thrush) [the fruits are a preferred source of food & uses this shrub for protective cover] DGr2002, Hylocichla mustelina (Wood Thrush) [the fruits of this woody shrub comprised 0-3% of the total diet in fruits in Illinois, the fruits are a preferred source of food & uses this shrub for protective cover] MW1988 DGr2002, Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird) [feeds on fruits & uses this shrub for protective cover] DGr2002, Turdus migratorius (American Robin) [the fruits are a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Tyrannidae: Empidonax alnorum (Alder Flycatcher) [feeds on fruits & uses this shrub for protective cover & nesting habitat] DGr2002, Myiarchus crinitus (Great Crested Flycatcher) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002, Tyrannus tyrannus (Eastern Kingbird) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002

Mammals
Bovidae: Capra aegagrus hircus (Domesticated Goat) [this shrub is eaten] Blk1998; Ursidae: Ursus americanus (American Black Bear) [fruits of this shrub are a major dietary item in Quebec during the summer] MOC2008
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