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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Fraxinus pennsylvanica
(Green Ash) [Oleaceae]
(observations are from Mager & Nelson, Carter, Baerwald et al., Clement, Mu╠nzer, Homan et al., and Moorman & Chapman)

Birds
Accipitridae: Buteo lineatus (Red-shouldered Hawk) [large specimens of this tree were selected as nest sites 8.3% of the time in Georgia] MC1996; Icteridae: Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle) [this tree was used 6.3% of the time as a nest site in North Dakota and it had below-average preference for this purpose] Hmn1996

Mammals

Vespertilionidae: Corynorhinus rafinesquii (Rafinesque's Big-eared Bat) [cavities of this tree were used for roost sites 1.2% of the time in Georgia] Clm2011, Lasiurus borealis (Eastern Red Bat) [Green Ash trees did not provide summer roost sites in an urban environment of Illinois during the summer] MN2001, Lasiurus cinereus (Hoary Bat) [foliage of this tree was selected 21.1% of the time for summer roost sites by nursing females in Manitoba] BGB2012, Myotis sodalis (Indiana Bat) [dead or dying Green Ash trees (snags) provide 31.9% of roost sites for female bats in southern Illinois] Crt2003, Nycticeius humeralis (Evening Bat) [cavities and/or exfoliating bark of this tree provided 42% of the roost sites in Michigan] Mnz2008
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