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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Potamogeton spp.
(Pondweed) [Potamogetonaceae]
(observations are from Martin et al., Ernst et al., Hamerstrom & Blake, Lagler, Forbes, Bellrose, and Havera; these observations also include Sago Pondweed, now referred to as Stuckenia pectinata)

Birds

Anatidae:
Aix sponsa (Wood Duck) [seeds & foliage comprise 10-25% of the diet in the Northeast during summer & fall, seeds & foliage comprise 5-10% of the diet in New York during spring] MZN1951, Anas acuta (Northern Pintail) [seeds & foliage comprise 10-25% of the diet in the Northeast during the summer & fall & winter, feeds on foliage & seeds] MZN1951 Blr1942, Anas americana (American Wigeon) [seeds & foliage comprise 10-25% of the diet during fall & winter in the Northeast, feeds on these plants in Illinois & elsewhere] MZN1951 Blr1942 Hv1999, Anas clypeata (Northern Shoveler) [foliage & seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in the Southeast during the winter, feeds on seeds] MZN1951 Blr1942, Anas crecca carolinensis (Green-winged Teal) [these plants comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Northeast during the spring & fall, feeds on seeds & foliage] MZN1951 Blr1942, Anas discors (Blue-winged Teal) [seeds & foliage comprise 5-10% of the diet in the Northeast during fall & winter & spring, feeds on foliage] MZN1951 Blr1942, Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard) [seeds & foliage comprise 10-25% of the diet in the Northeast, feeds on foliage] MZN1951 Blr1942, Anas rubripes (Black Duck) [seeds & foliage comprise 10-25% of the diet in the Northeast, feeds on seeds] MZN1951 Blr1942, Anas strepera (Gadwall) [these plants comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Southeast during winter, feeds on these plants in Illinois & elsewhere] MZN1951 Blr1942 Hv1999, Aythya affinis (Lesser Scaup) [foliage & seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in the Northeast during fall & winter & spring, feeds on foliage & seeds in Illinois & elsewhere] MZN1951 Blr1942 Hv1999, Aythya americana (Redhead) [seeds & foliage comprise 25-50% of the diet in the Northeast during spring & fall & winter, feeds on foliage & seeds & tubers in Illinois & elsewhere] MZN1951 Blr1942 Hv1999, Aythya collaris (Ring-necked Duck) [seeds & foliage comprise 25-50% of the diet in the Northeast during fall & winter & spring, feeds on seeds & foliage] MZN1951 Blr1942, Aythya marila (Greater Scaup) [seeds & foliage comprise 10-25% of the diet in the Northeast during fall & winter & spring, feeds on seeds & foliage] MZN1951 Blr1942, Aythya valisineria (Canvasback) [seeds & foliage comprise 10-25% of the diet in the Northeast during fall & winter & spring, feeds on seeds & foliage & tubers] MZN1951 Blr1942, Bucephala albeola (Bufflehead) [foliage & seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Northeast during fall & winter & spring, feeds on seeds] MZN1951 Blr1942, Bucephala clangula (Common Goldeneye) [foliage & seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in the Northeast during summer & fall & winter, feeds on foliage & seeds & tubers] MZN1951 Blr1942, Cygnus buccinator (Trumpeter Swan) [feeds on foliage] Blr1942, Oxyura jamaicensis (Ruddy Duck) [foliage & seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in the East during fall & winter & spring, feeds on seeds & foliage & tubers in Illinois & elsewhere] MZN1951 Blr1942 Hv1999; Rallidae: Fulica americana (Common Coot) [foliage & seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in the Northeast throughout the year] MZN1951, Rallus elegans (King Rail) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northeast] MZN1951, Rallus limicola (Virginia Rail) [seeds comprise 0.5–2% of the diet in the Northeast] MZN1951; Recurvirostridae: Recurvirostra americana (American Avocet) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in the West throughout the year] MZN1951; Scolopacidae: Calidris canutus rufa (Red Knot) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northeast] MZN1951, Calidris himantopus (Stilt Sandpiper) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East] MZN1951, Calidris melanotos (Pectoral Sandpiper) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the United States] MZN1951, Gallinago delicata (Wilson's Snipe) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northeast] MZN1951, Limnodromus griseus (Short-billed Dowitcher) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the East during spring & summer] MZN1951

Mammals
Cervidae: 
Alces americanus (American Moose) [feeds on the foliage of these plants from Maine to Michigan during the summer, the foliage of these plants comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Isle Royale of Michigan] MZN1951; Cricetidae: Ondatra zibethicus (Muskrat) [the lower stems have moderate value as a food source, these plants comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA] HB1939 MZN1951

Turtles
Chelydridae: Chelydra serpentina (Snapping Turtle) [feeds on these plants] EBL1994 Lg1943; Emydidae: Chrysemys picta (Painted Turtle) [feeds on these plants] EBL1994 Lg1943, Emydoidea blandingii (Blanding's Turtle) [feeds on these plants] EBL1994 Lg1943, Graptemys ouachitensis (Ouachita Map Turtle) [feeds on these plants] EBL1994, Trachemys scripta (Slider) [feeds on these plants] EBL1994; Kinosternidae:
Sternotherus odoratus (Stinkpot) [feeds on these plants] Lg1943

Fishes
Catostomidae: Ictiobus bubalus (Smallmouth Buffalo) [feeds on these plants] Frb1888; Centrarchidae: Ambloplites rupestris (Rock Bass) [feeds on these plants] Frb1888; Cyprinidae: Luxilus chrysocephalus (Striped Shiner) [feeds on these plants] Frb1888; Ictaluridae: Ameiurus nebulosus (Brown Bullhead) [feeds on these plants] Frb1888, Ictalurus punctatus (Channel Catfish) [feeds on these plants] Frb1888; Polyodontidae: Polyodon spathula (American Paddlefish) [feeds on these plants] Frb1888
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