Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:


Wolffia spp.
(Watermeal) [Lemnaceae]
(observations are from Ernst et al., Lagler, Pearse, Forbes, and Bellrose)

Anatidae: Aix sponsa (Wood Duck) [ducklings feed on these plants] Blr1942


Chelydridae: Chelydra serpentina (Snapping Turtle) [feeds on these plants] EBL1994 Lg1943; Emydidae: Trachemys scripta (Slider) [feeds on these plants] EBL1994

Aphredoderidae: Aphredoderus sayanus (Pirate Perch) [feeds on these plants] Frb1888; Catostomidae: Carpiodes sp. (Carpsucker, Quillback) [feeds on these plants] Frb1888, Erimyzon sucetta (Lake Chubsucker) [feeds on these plants] Frb1888, Ictiobus bubalus (Smallmouth Buffalo) [feeds on these plants] Frb1888, Ictiobus niger (Black Buffalo) [feeds on these plants] Frb1888, Moxostoma carinatum (River Redhorse) [feeds on these plants] Frb1888, Moxostoma macrolepidotum (Shorthead Redhorse) [feeds on these plants] Frb1888; Centrarchidae: Lepomis macrochirus (Bluegill) [feeds on these plants] Frb1888, Pomoxis nigromaculatus (Black Crappie) [these plants comprise 10% of the diet] Prs1918; Clupeidae: Dorosoma cepedianum (American Gizzard Shad) [feeds on these plants] Frb1888; Cyprinidae: Cyprinus carpio (Common Carp) [these plants comprise 2.5–4.7% of the diet] Prs1918, Notemigonus crysoleucas (Golden Shiner) [these plants comprise 3% of the diet] Prs1918, Notropis heterodon (Blackchin Shiner) [these plants comprise 3.2–14% of the diet] Prs1918; Fundulidae: Fundulus diaphanus menona (Menona Topminnow) [these plants comprise 10.7–14.7% of the diet] Prs1918, Fundulus olivaceus (Black-spotted Topminnow) [feeds on these plants] Frb1888; Ictaluridae: Ameiurus natalis (Yellow Bullhead) [feeds on these plants] Frb1888;
Poeciliidae: Gambusia affinis (Western Mosquito Fish) [feeds on these plants] Frb1888; Umbridae: Umbra limi (Central Mudminnow) [these plants comprise 2.5% of the diet] Prs1918 Frb1888