Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:


Picea rubens
(Red Spruce) [Pinaceae]
(observations are from Martin et al., Lowe, and Steele)

Dendroica caerulescens (Black-throated Blue Warbler) [this tree was selected for 2.4% of nest sites in New Hampshire and it had average preference for this purpose] St1993


Erethizontidae: Erethizon dorsatum (North American Porcupine) [this tree comprises 5-10% of the diet in Vermont during winter] MZN1951; Vespertilionidae: Myotis lucifugus (Little Brown Bat) [cavities & exfoliating bark of this tree were used as fall roost sites in Nova Scotia] Lw2012