____________


Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

____________


Picea rubens
(Red Spruce) [Pinaceae]
(observations are from Martin et al. and Lowe)

Mammals

Erethizontidae: Erethizon dorsatum (North American Porcupine) [this tree comprises 5-10% of the diet in Vermont during winter] MZN1951; Vespertilionidae: Myotis lucifugus (Little Brown Bat) [cavities & exfoliating bark of this tree were used as fall roost sites in Nova Scotia] Lw2012
________________________________________________________________________