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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Vaccinium spp.
(Blueberry) [Ericaceae]
(observations are from Hamilton, Martin et al., Schorger, Ernst et al., Beeman & Pelton, Schmidt, Haugen, Bennetts, Mosnier et al., DeGraaf, Yeatter, and Beal)

Birds
Bombycillidae: Bombycilla cedrorum (Cedar Waxwing) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Cardinalidae: Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Piranga olivacea (Scarlet Tanager) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Columbidae: Ectopistes migratorius (Passenger Pigeon) [fruits were an important source of food] Sch1955, Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove) [feeds on the fruits & uses these shrubs for protective cover] DGr2002; Corvidae: Corvus ossifragus (Fish Crow) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in eastern USA, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Emberizidae: Passerculus sandwichensis (Savannah Sparrow) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Pipilo erythrophthalmus (Eastern Towhee) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during summer & fall, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these shrubs for protective cover] MZN1951 DGr2002, Spizelloides arborea (American Tree Sparrow) [feeds on the fruits & uses these shrubs for protective cover] DGr2002, Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these shrubs for protective cover] MZN1951 DGr2002; Fringillidae: Pinicola enucleator (Pine Grosbeak) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Gruidae: Grus canadensis (Sandhill Crane) [fruits comprise 0–2% of the diet in western United States] MZN1951; Icteridae: Icterus galbula (Baltimore Oriole) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Icterus spurius (Orchard Oriole) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Laridae: Larus argentatus (Herring Gull) [the fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in the United States] MZN1951; Mimidae: Dumetella carolinensis (Catbird) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during summer, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these shrubs as preferred sites for nests] MZN1951 DGr2002, Toxostoma rufum (Brown Thrasher) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during summer, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Odontophoridae: Colinus virginianus (Bobwhite Quail) [feeds on the fruits & uses these shrubs for protective cover] DGr2002; Paridae: Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Poecile atricapillus (Black-capped Chickadee) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Parulidae: Icteria virens (Yellow-breasted Chat) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in eastern USA during summer, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [fruits & buds comprise 0.5-10% of the diet in the Northeast & Virginia Alleghenies & Pennsylvania & Maine during summer & fall & winter, feeds on fruits in Wisconsin & Ontario during fall & winter, feeds on the fruits & leaves as preferred sources of food] MZN1951 Bnn1900 DGr2002, Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Pennsylvania & the Allegheny Mountains & Virginia & Missouri, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these shrubs for protective cover] MZN1951 DGr2002, Phasianus colchicus (Ring-necked Pheasant) [feeds on the fruits & uses these shrubs for protective cover] DGr2002, Tympanuchus cupido (Greater Prairie Chicken) [fruits comprise 2.4% of the diet in Wisconsin] Yt1943; Picidae: Colaptes auratus (Northern Flicker) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East & Eastern Prairies, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Melanerpes carolinus (Red-bellied Woodpecker) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Red-headed Woodpecker) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Sturnidae: Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Trochilidae: Archilochus colubris (Ruby-throated Hummingbird) [feeds on the flower nectar] DGr2002; Turdidae: Catharus fuscescens (Veery) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during summer, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these shrubs for protective cover] MZN1951 DGr2002, Catharus guttatus (Hermit Thrush) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these shrubs for protective cover] MZN1951 DGr2002, Catharus minimus (Grey-cheeked Thrush) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during the summer & fall, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these shrubs for protective cover] MZN1951 DGr2002, Hylocichla mustelina (Wood Thrush) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these shrubs for protective cover] MZN1951 DGr2002, Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food, the fruits are eaten frequently] DGr2002 Be1915, Turdus migratorius (American Robin) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food, the fruits are eaten frequently] MZN1951 DGr2002 Be1915; Tyrannidae: Myiarchus crinitus (Great Crested Flycatcher) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Eastern USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Sayornis phoebe (Eastern Phoebe) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in eastern USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Tyrannus tyrannus (Eastern Kingbird) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002

Mammals

Canidae: Urocyon cineroargenteus (Gray Fox) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in SE USA] MZN1951, Vulpes vulpes fulvus (American Red Fox) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA & Massachusetts] MZN1951; Cervidae: Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [foliage & twigs & fruit comprise 5-10% of the diet in Maine, twigs comprise 0.5-5% of the diet in New York & the North Carolina mountains during winter] MZN1951; Cricetidae: Peromyscus leucopus (White-footed Mouse) [fruits comprise 5-10% of the diet in E USA during summer] MZN1951; Dipodidae: Napaeozapus insignis (Woodland Jumping Mouse) [eats fruits and/or seeds] Hm1941; Leporidae: Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail) [leaves & twigs & fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in Connecticut throughout the year, these shrubs are occasionally used as a source of food in Michigan during winter] MZN1951 Hgn1942; Mephitidae: Mephitis mephitis  (Striped Skunk) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during winter] MZN1951; Sciuridae: Poliocitellus franklinii (Franklin's Ground Squirrel) [feeds on fruits in Wisconsin] Scm1931, Sciurus niger (Fox Squirrel) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA & Michigan] MZN1951, Tamias minimus (Least Chipmunk) [fruits comprise 10-25% of the diet in Minnesota during late summer & early fall] MZN1951; Ursidae: Ursus americanus (American Black Bear) [feeds on fruits to a major extent, fruits comprise 10-25% of the diet in Virginia & West Virginia during winter, fruits comprise 25-50% of the diet in Minnesota during summer, fruits are a major dietary item during the summer & fall] BP1980 MZN1951 MOC2008

Turtles
Emydidae: Glyptemys insculpta (Wood Turtle) [feeds on fruits] EBL1994, Terrapene carolina (Eastern Box Turtle) [feeds on fruits] EBL1994
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