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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Ilex spp.
(Holly) [Aquifoliaceae]
(observations are from Martin et al., Schorger, and DeGraaf)

Birds

Anatidae: Aix sponsa (Wood Duck) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Bombycillidae: Bombycilla cedrorum (Cedar Waxwing) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Cardinalidae: Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Columbidae: Ectopistes migratorius (Passenger Pigeon) [fruits often used as food] Sch1955, Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Corvidae: Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Emberizidae: Pipilo erythrophthalmus (Eastern Towhee) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Fringillidae: Haemorhous purpureus (Purple Finch) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Icteridae: Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) [uses these small trees for protective cover & nest sites] DGr2002; Mimidae: Dumetella carolinensis (Catbird) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird) [fruits comprise 5-10% of the diet in SE USA during winter, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these small trees for protective cover & nest sites] MZN1951 DGr2002, Toxostoma rufum (Brown Thrasher) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Odontophoridae: Colinus virginianus (Bobwhite Quail) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Phasianus colchicus (Ring-necked Pheasant) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Picidae: Colaptes auratus (Northern Flicker) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA & Eastern Prairies, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in E USA during winter, feeds on fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Melanerpes carolinus (Red-bellied Woodpecker) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Sphyrapicus varius (Yellow-bellied Sapsucker) [drills holes in wood & sucks sap in E USA, fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet during fall & winter in E USA, sucks the sap & feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Turdidae: Catharus fuscescens (Veery) [feeds on the fruits & uses these small trees for protective cover & nest sites] DGr2002, Catharus guttatus (Hermit Thrush) [fruits comprise 5-10% of the diet in E USA during fall & winter, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Catharus minimus (Grey-cheeked Thrush) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Catharus ustulatus (Swainson's Thrush) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Prairie region during spring, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Hylocichla mustelina (Wood Thrush) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Turdus migratorius (American Robin) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these small trees for protective cover & nest sites] MZN1951 DGr2002; Tyrannidae: Sayornis phoebe (Eastern Phoebe) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Vireonidae: Vireo griseus (White-eyed Vireo) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in SE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002

Mammals
Cervidae: Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [foliage & twigs comprise 2-5% of the diet in Pennsylvania during spring] MZN1951; Procyonidae: Procyon lotor (Raccoon) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Ursidae: Ursus americanus (American Black Bear) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Virginia & West Virginia during winter] MZN1951
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