____________


Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

____________


Croton spp.
(Goatweed) [Euphorbiaceae]
(observations are from Lewis and Martin et al.)

Birds

Columbidae: Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove) [seeds of moderate importance as a source of food,
seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northeast, seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in Prairies during summer & fall] Lws1993 MZN1951; Emberizidae: Chondestes grammacus (Lark Sparrow) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Prairie region during summer & winter] MZN1951, Zonotrichia leucophrys (White-crowned Sparrow) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Eastern Prairies] MZN1951; Icteridae: Molothrus ater (Brown-headed Cowbird) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in SE USA during summer & fall] MZN1951; Phasianidae: Colinus virginianus (Bobwhite Quail) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE Prairies] MZN1951
________________________________________________________________________