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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Acer saccharum
(Sugar Maple) [Aceraceae]
(observations are from Schorger, Martin et al., DeGraaf, Krynak, Ford et al., Veilleux et al., and Mu╠nzer)

Birds

Cardinalidae: Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal) [feeds on seeds] DGr2002, Pheucticus ludovicianus (Rose-breasted Grosbeak) [feeds on seeds & uses this tree for protective cover & nesting habitat] DGr2002; Columbidae: Ectopistes migratorius (Passenger Pigeon) [seeds often used as food] Sch1955; Fringillidae: Coccothraustes vespertinus (Evening Grosbeak) [feeds on seeds & buds] DGr2002, Pinicola enucleator (Pine Grosbeak) [feeds on seeds] DGr2002, Spinus tristis (American Goldfinch) [uses this tree for protective cover & nesting habitat] DGr2002; Icteridae: Icterus galbula (Baltimore Oriole) [uses this tree for nesting habitat] DGr2002; Odontophoridae: Colinus virginianus (Bobwhite Quail) [feeds on seeds] DGr2002; Turdidae: Turdus migratorius (American Robin) [uses this tree for protective cover & nesting habitat] DGr2002; Vireonidae: Vireo olivaceus (Red-eyed Vireo) [uses this tree for protective cover & nesting habitat] DGr2002

Mammals
Erethizontidae: Erethizon dorsatum (North American Porcupine) [the inner bark of this tree comprises 10-25% of the diet in Vermont during winter in combination with Acer pensylvanicum] MZN1951; Vespertilionidae: Myotis septentrionalis (Northern Long-eared Bat) [large Sugar Maple trees that are usually dead provide 9.5% of summer roost sites in Ohio by hiding in cavities or behind exfoliating bark, this tree provides 12.5% of the summer roost sites for male bats in West Virginia] Kr2010 Frd2006, Nycticeius humeralis (Evening Bat) [cavities and/or exfoliating bark of this tree provided 9% of the roost sites in Michigan] Mnz2008, Perimyotis subflavus (Tricolored Bat) [dead or live foliage of this tree was selected 10.8% of the time as a summer roost site by maternal colonies in Indiana & this tree has below-average preference for this purpose] VWV2003
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